Cognitive Psychology Edexcel

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Craik & Lockhart's theory was the first to show what?
That memory is improved when it goes through more depth when processing
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They suggested that information is more readily transferred into LTM if it's processed in what way?
Semantically (by meaning)
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Why did Craik & Lockhart create the Levels of Processing framework?
As a result of the criticism that came from the Multi Store Model of memory
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They presented the idea that memory depends on what?
The level of processing of information, rather than being in different stores, with different features
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What did Craik & Lockhart believe memory was?
A by-product of processing that occurs, rather than memory being a 'thing'
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What are the 3 levels of processing?
1. Structural - shallow, 2. Phonemic - intermediate, 3. Semantic - deep
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Did Craik & Tulving's study find what was predicted by the Levels of Processing framework?
Yes
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What are 2 strengths of the framework?
1. it looks at the whole process rather than just storage, 2. the model has support from Craik & Tulving's study which demonstrated that semantically processed words were more deeply processed and therefore better recalled than shallow information
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What are 2 weaknesses of the framework?
1. Eysenck & Eysenck argue that shallow processing could lead to better processing if the material was distinctive, 2. deeper processing takes more effort which could be why someone remembers something, rather than the depth of processing
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What did Bartlett say about memory?
It isn't like a tape recorder; it isn't perfectly formed, encoded and retrieved
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What did Bartlett find?
When people are given a piece of information and asked to repeat it, only the main points are recalled
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How did Bartlett test his theory?
With a game of Chinese whispers called 'War of the Ghosts'
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What did the the game show?
When asked to repeat a tale many times, soon after and a long time later, people alter the tale to make it make sense (it was shortened from 300 words to 180)
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What are 2 strengths of Bartlett's theory of Reconstructive Memory?
1. memory doesn't seem to be distorted when we have a new experience as there are no existing schemas to distort it, 2. there is clear evidence to support the theory e.g. Bartlett's tale study and Loftus
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What are 2 weaknesses of Bartlett's theory?
1. it doesn't explain how memories are stored or the form in which information is taken in, unlike the Multi Store Model and Levels of Processing, 2. the tale didn't make sense to start with so it may've been altered due to demand characteristics
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What type of memory does the Cue Dependent Theory apply to?
Long term memory
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What does the theory state?
That when cues are present at encoding but aren't at retrieval, forgetting may occur
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What are cues?
They are additional pieces of information, which act like signposts to the information we want to retrieve
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Why are cues necessary?
To access information that is available but not accessible
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What are the 2 types of cue?
1. Context dependent, 2. State dependent
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What does context dependent mean?
The situation/location an individual is in at the time of encoding
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What does state dependent mean?
The individuals mood or state at the time of encoding
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What 2 events are necessary for recall, according to Cue Dependent Theory?
1. a memory trace - info is laid down & retained in a store as a result of orignial perception of an event, 2. retrieval cue - info present in individuals cognitive environment at time of retrieval that matches environment at time of recall
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What are 2 strengths of Cue Dependent Theory?
1. it's supported by the fact that people find recollections of childhood become fainter as they get older & returning to where they grew up serves to bring the past alive, 2. has been applied to real life successfully e.g. police reconstructions
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What are 2 weaknesses of Cue Dependent Theory?
1. in some circumstances it's difficult to know whether a true memory is accessed as a result of a cue or if the memory is a reconstruction, 2. the theory doesn't take into account biological factors
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What type of memory does Interference Theory focus on?
Long term memory/store
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What does the theory state?
Memory can be disrupted or interfered with by what we have previously learned or by what we will learn in the future
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What are the 2 types of interference?
1. proactive - old memories disrupt new memories, 2. retroactive - new memories disrupt old memories
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Is interference thought to be more likely to occur when the memories are similar or different?
When they are similar
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What did Chandler (1989) state?
Students who study similar subjects at the same time often experience interference
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What are 2 strengths of Interference Theory?
1. McGeoch has shown that students are more likely to forget info from topics that are similar, 2. studies have demonstrated that forgetting is influenced by what happens in the time between learning & recall
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What are 2 weaknesses of Interference Theory?
1. the theory tells us little about the cognitive processes involved in forgetting, 2. majority of the research into interference has been carried out in a lab, using lists of words = low eco validity & may not be possible to generalise findings
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They suggested that information is more readily transferred into LTM if it's processed in what way?

Back

Semantically (by meaning)

Card 3

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Why did Craik & Lockhart create the Levels of Processing framework?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

They presented the idea that memory depends on what?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What did Craik & Lockhart believe memory was?

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