Cognitive- Moray

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  • Created by: tspence
  • Created on: 12-06-17 10:57
What is the background to Moray's Study?
Cherry- used the method of 'shadowing' to test divided attention. Participants had to repeat back one of two messages that they were listening to. The two messages were presented simultaneously.
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What was the background to Moray's study? (continued)
They were either played to both ears at the same time (binaural tests) or one to each ear (dichotic tests). He found that with binaural tests it was hard to separate the two messages. In the dichotic test they were able to separate the two messages.
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What could participants in Cherry's research also do in the dichotic tests?
Block one of the messages out, so when asked about on the messaged they didn't know anything. They would fail to know a language change from English to German. They could recognise though the change in gender
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What was the aim to Moray's study?
To test Cherry's dichotic listening findings in relation to the amount of information recognised in the rejected message and the effect of hearing ones own name in the unattended message, and the effect of an instruction to identify a specific target
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What was the overall research method and what equipment was used?
Laborratary experiment. There were 3 experiments. A Brenell Mark IV stereophonic tape recorder was used.
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Experiment 1-Research method, IV and DV?
Repeated Measures. IV= the shawdowed message, rejected message and a Control. DV= ask to recall all they could from the unattended message then were given a recognition test. RT included words from shadowed message, rejected message and control words
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Experiment 2- Research Method, IV and DV?
Repeated Measures, IV= whether the instruction started with the participants name or not. DV= the frequency in which the instruction was heard.
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Experiment 3- Research method, IV and DV?
Repeated measures. IV=Whether they were told that they would be asked questions about the shadowed content message or they were told they should remember all the numbers they could. DV= the number of digits correctly reported.
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Who were the Participants of the study?
Study 1- unknown Study 2- 12 ps. Study 3- two groups of 14. All were undergraduates or research workers. Both males and females.
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What was the overall procedure?
All were dichotic listening tasks. The messages were all recorded onto a tape with the same male voice at the rates of 130 o 150 words per minute.
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What were the controls?
The rejected message was played at a volume that seemed to be the same as the shadowed message for the individual participant. the two messages were always played through headphones directing the separate message to each ear individually.
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What was the procedure for Experiment 1?
Ps heard a short list of words repeated 35 times in the unattended ear whilst they shadowed a prose message in the attended ear. The words list was faded in when shadowing began and faded out when the attended message ended
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What was the procedure for Experiment 2?
Ps shadowed 10 short passages of light fiction, each being a different condition and havung a different set of instructions either at the start or within the passage or both. They were told their responses would be recorded.
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What was the procedure for Experiment 3?
Messages were constructed which had digits inter spread with the words towards the end of the passage (experimental). Similar messages had no digits (control). Ps either heard two experimental messages or one experimental message and one control.
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What were the results for study 1?
The results showed no evidence that the words from the rejected message had been recognised. Mean number of words recognised = shadowed 4.9/7 rejected 1.9/7 neither 2.6/7.
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What were the results for study 2?
Affective instructions (used name) Presented= 39 Heard=20 Non Affective (no name) Presented= 36 Heard=4
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What were the results for Study 3?
The mean number of digits reported when the participants had been told they would be asked about the content and when told specifically to listen for digits was not significantly different. Meaning the ps could not be primed to respond to digits.
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What were the conclusions of the study? (1/3)
1. When the ps direct attention to the message in one ear, rejecting the other message almost all verbal content in the rejected message is blocked
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What were the conclusions of the study? (2/3)
2. Important messages such as their own name can penetrate the block-my hear instructions with our own name even in the rejected message.
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What were the conclusions of the study? (3/3)
It is very difficult to make neutral materials important enough to penetrate the block.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What was the background to Moray's study? (continued)

Back

They were either played to both ears at the same time (binaural tests) or one to each ear (dichotic tests). He found that with binaural tests it was hard to separate the two messages. In the dichotic test they were able to separate the two messages.

Card 3

Front

What could participants in Cherry's research also do in the dichotic tests?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What was the aim to Moray's study?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What was the overall research method and what equipment was used?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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