Cognitive behavioural approach

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What did Pavlov do?
Instincts and reflexes: inevitable responses of organism to internal/external stimuli
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What happened first with Pavloves dog?
Unconditioned stimuli: food, Unconditioned response: salvating
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What else happened before conditioning?
The dogs were introduced to a neutral stimuli --> No conditioned response
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What happened during conditioning?
The neutral stimuli and dog food were introduced to the dog to produce an unconditioned response
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What happens after conditioning?
Conditioned stimuli to conditioned response
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what is an unconditioned stimulus?
Biologically important stimulus that elicits reflexive resposne
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What is an unconditioned response?
reflexive response
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What is conditioned stimulus?
Previously neutral stimulus that elicits learned response after pairing with US
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What is conditioned response?
Learned response elicited by CS
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What did Watson say?
The behaviour of animals and the behaviour of man must be considered on the same plane
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What are the psychological problems and solutions?
Stimulus- response
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What was Watsons and Raynor's experiment?
Little Albert
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What did they do before conditioning?
Loud noise (US) --> fear, Rat --> no fear (UR)
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What do they do during conditioning?
Loud noise + rat --> fear
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What happens during after conditioning?
Rat (CS) --> Fear (CR)
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What was Little Albert also scared of?
Rabbits and Fur coat
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What Conditioning did Skinner introduce?
Operant conditioning
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What did Skinner suggest reinforcement does?
Increases likelihood of behaviour
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What two types of reinforcements are there?
Positive (something pleasant occurs) and Negative (something aversive avoided
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How are phobias maintained?
Acquisition through classical conditioning - learned fear response to previously neutral item
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Why is there no reduction with repeated exposure?
Avoidance learning: avoidance of the CS leads to prevention of fear/anxiety --> negative refinforcement
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What happens when anxiety is avoided?
Prevents unlearning
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During OCD, when threat subsides what happens?
behaviour linked to fear reduction --> behaviour becomes negatively reinforced --> complusions
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What does it lead to a lack of oppurtunity for?
Unlearning
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What learning did Bandura discover?
Observational learning
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What is observational learning?
Most human behaviour learned through observing models
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How can anxiety be learned?
Through observation of others
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What is perceived self-efficacy?
Subjective belief about capability to carry out certain tasks
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Like the medical model, what are target of treatments?
Symptoms
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What is focused upon?
Current behaviour
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What is identified?
Specific measurable goals
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What is strengthed?
Adaptive behaviours, reducing maladaptive ones, capacity to relax, social skills
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What is the process of therapy?
Time limited, less intensive than psychoanalysis
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What are the relationships conditions?
Empathy and confruence necessary but not sufficient for behaviour change
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What is the Behavioural assessment based on?
Antecedent, problem behaviour, consequences
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During Systematic desensitization, what is reciprocal inhibition?
Old habits reduced if new habits allowed to develop in same situation
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What happens in therapy?
Relaxation training (muscle relaxation), constructing a hierarchy (rate subjective fear), imagining hierarchy items (5-7 seconds)
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What is Invivo exposure?
Direct contact with feared stimulus, graded exposure hierarchy, continues until responses reduced, OCD: exposure and response prevention
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What is flooding?
Direct or imaginal, highest level of hierarchy
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What did aversive stimulus present?
Simultaneously with unwanted behaviour
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For example?
In alcoholism: sight, smell, taste of alcohol paired with electric shock
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How does this differ from punishment?
In operant conditioning when an unpleasant consequence follows a behaviour
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What does behaviour become associated with?
Unpleasant stimulus and responding decreases
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What is reinforcement programmes and token economies?
Aim to modify behaviour by altering its consequences, adaptive behaviours reinforced, maladaptive behaviours extinguished through removal of reinforcers
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What is modelling?
Therapist models appropriate behaviour' learned by client, viewing model increases client's perceived self efficacy
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What are 2 positives of behavioural therapy?
Emphasis on research into techniques and assessment of outcomes, much success in helping people with OCD
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What are 2 negatives of behavioural therapy?
Less useful in understanding some other disorders, pure behavioural approach
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What happened first with Pavloves dog?

Back

Unconditioned stimuli: food, Unconditioned response: salvating

Card 3

Front

What else happened before conditioning?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What happened during conditioning?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What happens after conditioning?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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