Cognitive

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: mols1357
  • Created on: 11-04-18 15:34
Coding
The format in which the info is stored in various memory stores
1 of 29
Capacity
Amount of information that can be held in a memory store
2 of 29
Duration
The length of time information can be held in memory
3 of 29
Short Term Memory (STM)
Limited capacity memory store. Coding is mainly acoustic. Capacity is between 5 and 9 items, duration between 18 - 30 seconds
4 of 29
Long Term Memory (LTM)
Permanent memory store. Coding is mainly semantic, unlimited capacity and can store memories for a lifetime
5 of 29
Acoustic Encoding
When information is encoded through sound
6 of 29
Semantic Encoding
When information is encoded through the use of a similar meaning
7 of 29
Multi-Store Model (MSM)
A representation of how memory works in terms of three stores called the sensory register, STM and LTM. It also describes how information is transferred from one store to another, how it is remembered and how it is forgotten
8 of 29
Sensory Register
The memory stores for each of our five senses, sich as vision (iconic store) and hearing (echoic store). Coding in the iconic sensory register is visual and in the echoic sensory register it is acoustic. Capacity register is large. Info lasts 1/2 sec
9 of 29
Episodic Memory
A long-term memory store for personal events. It includes memories of when the events occured and of the people, objects, places and behaviors involved. Memories from this store have to be retrieved consciously and with effort.
10 of 29
Semantic Memory
A long-term memory store for our knowledge of the world. This includes facts and our knowledge of what words and concepts mean. These memories usually also need to be recalled deliberately.
11 of 29
Procedural memory
A long-term memory store for our knowledge of how to do things. This includes our memories of learned skills. We usually recall these memories without making a conscious or deliberate effort.
12 of 29
Working Memory Model (WMM)
A representation of short-term memory (STM). It suggests that STM is a dynamic processor of different types of information using sub-units coordinated by a central decision-making system.
13 of 29
Central Executive (CE)
The component of the WMM that coordinates the activities of the three subsystems in the memory. It also allocates processing resources to those activities.
14 of 29
Phonological Loop (PL)
The component of the WMM that processes information in terms of sound. This includes both written and spoken material. It's divided into the phonological store and the articulatory process.
15 of 29
Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad (VSS)
The component of the WMM that processes visual and spatial information in a mental space often called our 'inner eye'
16 of 29
Episodic Buffer (EB)
The component of the WMM that brings together material from the other subsystems into a single memory rather than separate strands. It also provides a bridge between working memory and LTM.
17 of 29
Inference
Forgetting because one memory blocks another, causing one or both memories to be distorted or forgotten.
18 of 29
Proactive Inference (PI)
Forgetting occurs when older memories, already stored, disrupt the recall of newer memories. The degree of forgetting is greater when the memories are similar.
19 of 29
Retroactive Interference (RI)
Forgetting occurs when newer memories disrupt the recall of older memories already stored. The degree of forgetting is again greater when the memories are similar.
20 of 29
Retrieval Faliure
A form of forgetting. It occurs when we don't have the necessary cues to access memory. The memory is available but not accessible unless a suitable cue is provided.
21 of 29
Cue
A 'trigger' of information that allows us to access a memory. Such cues may be meaningful or may be indirectly linked by being encoded at the time of learning. For example, cues may be external (environmental context) or internal (mood or drunkenness
22 of 29
Encoding Specificity Principle (ESP)
If a cue is to help us to recall information, it has to be present at encoding and at retrieval. It follows from this that if the cues available at encoding and retrieval are different or absent, there will be some forgetting.
23 of 29
Eyewitness Testimony (EWT)
The ability of people to remember the details of events, such as accidents and crimes, which they themselves have observed. Accuracy of EWT can be affected by factors such as misleading information, leading questions and anxiety
24 of 29
Misleading Information
Incorrect information given to the eyewitness usually after the event.
25 of 29
Leading Questions
A question which, because of the way it's phrased, suggests a certain answer.
26 of 29
Post-Event Discussion (PED)
Occurs when there is more than one witness to an event. Witnesses may discuss what they have seen with co-witnesses or with other people. This may influence the accuracy of each witness's recall of the event.
27 of 29
Anxiety
A state of emotional and physical arousal. The emotions include having worried thoughts and feelings of tension. Physical changes include an increased heart rate and sweatiness. It is a normal reaction to have, but can affect accuracy and detail.
28 of 29
Cognitive Interview
A method of interviewing eyewitnesses which helps them have more accurate memories. Uses 4 main techniques: report everything, reinstate the context, reverse the order and change perspective
29 of 29

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Amount of information that can be held in a memory store

Back

Capacity

Card 3

Front

The length of time information can be held in memory

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Limited capacity memory store. Coding is mainly acoustic. Capacity is between 5 and 9 items, duration between 18 - 30 seconds

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Permanent memory store. Coding is mainly semantic, unlimited capacity and can store memories for a lifetime

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Cognitive Psychology resources »