Cognition and law

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  • Created by: Abbie
  • Created on: 09-06-13 16:36
What does the feature theory of face recognition state?
analysing individual features is most important in face recognition. it's a 'bottom up' theory - cues from stimulus (face) will be analysed by the brain and these visual ques will be enough for face recognition.
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How did shepard, davies and Ellis study the feature theory of face recognition?
Participants shown unfamiliar faces for short time and then asked to describe the faces they had been shown. Features most often noted were hair, eyes, nose, mouth.
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What did Ellis et all note?
With unfamiliar faces we tend to rely on external features (e.g. hair) where as with familiar faces we rely on internal faces (e.g nose) external features are more likely to change therefore making them more unreliable.
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How do scrambled faces provide evidence against feature theory?
When configuraton of features are altered is is more difficult to recognise a well-known face and takes longer. if only features are important it should not matter where eyes are located.
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How do inverted faces provide evidence against feature theory?
faces are normally recognised holistically - inverting faces makes recognition difficult because the relationship between features cannot be detected. the participant may have to independantly process features which could take longer.
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Who proposed the holistic model of face recognition?
Bruce and young
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What is the holistic model of Face recognition?
A Familiar face is structually encoded (Description of face produced) this activated the FRU (structual info about the face) this activated the PIN (Info about the person) This activated name generation.
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outline young et als study?
voulenteers asked to keep a diary and record any cases where they failed to recognise someone they knew. no reports of naming someone without knowing other info about them. p's reported knowing info about someone but unable to name them.
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evaluation of holistic theory of face recognition?
Flude et al - patient with brain damage could identify occupations of 85% of familiar faces but only name 15% supporting model. lacks detailed evidence of unfamiliar face recognition.
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What is Photo-Fit?
Contains features printed onto a jigsaw like pieces that slot into a template. Features can be enhanced, e.g. by ageing with wrinkles.
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Evaluation of photo-fit?
Insufficient features availiable, Feature demarcation lines interfere with identification, only identified 12.5% of the time.
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What is E-Fit?
Computerised version of photo-fit. Composites are more realistic because photographs of features are used.
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Evaluation of E-Fit?
Davies - no signifigant difference between E-fit and Photo-Fit was found.
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What is Evo-Fit?
Faces are generated using principle components analysis. faces selected that most resemble suspect, the components of these sepreate faces are mixed together producing 'offspring' the offspring are bred together until a good likeliness is confirmed.
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Evaluation of Evo-Fit?
Fits the holistic model of face recognition, allows composite to evolve from complete faces (ie the composite is not constructed from individual features.)
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how did Frowd et al study composite systems?
composites of unfamiliar targets were constructed from memory after 4 hours using each composite system. PROfit was superior exept for more distinctive targets where Efit was superior. Photo and evo-fit were least effective techniques.
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What are the two types of variables that can occur during eye wittness line ups?
System variables and Estimator variables.
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What are system variables?
Pre line up instructions such as explaining the suspect may not be present, physical characteristics of distractors - important non suspects are obviously different from suspect.
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What are Estimator variables?
use of weapons - can result in 'weapon focus' where eye witneess may focus on weapon rather than the face perpatrator. Conditions at time of the event - e.g. poor lighting or bad weather.
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What is a simultanious line up?
The witness views all members at the same time. False positive choices are more likely to occur because individual may be chosen on basis on familiarity in relation to the others in the line up. 'RELATIVE JUDGMENTS' are made.
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What is a sequential line up?
The witness views each member one at a time encouraging an 'ABSOLUTE JUDGMENT'
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evaluation of identity parades and line ups?
Steblay et al - sequential line up reduces rate of false identifications when the real suspect is present. dunning and stem - witnesses who used process of elimination were more likely to make false identification.
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outline loftus and palmers study?
Participants viewd carcrashe and asked a) to describe what happened and b)answer questions about film. there were 3 groups; how fast was the car going when it Smashed, Hit and the 3rd was a control group.
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What are the results of loftus and palmers study?
Signifigant difference in mean estimate of speed: Smashed was 10.46mph 'Hit' Was 8Mph
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Evaluation of eye witness studies?
Ecological Validity, Cohen, closed questions are often used whereas in real life open questions are more likely.
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What would the interviewer ask the eye witness to do in order to improve eye witness recall?
1. Recreate the context including envrionment and emotional state 2. Report everything; even if it seems irrelivent 3.Recount incodent in a different order 4. Report events from other perspectives.
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Outline gieslmans study?
P's viewed a violent crim 48hrs later interviewed. three conditions were used; standard police interview, interview with hypnotised patients, and cognitive interview.
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What are the results of gieslmans study?
There was signifigantly higher recall of acurate statememnts for cognitive interview.
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Evaluation of the cognitive interview?
increase in amount of incorect info as a result of cognitive interview is a concern, requires interview to be done asap after incodent has happened, reduces amount of post event contamination.
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outline brigham et als study on children as eye witnesses?
children were shown staged theft. they were questioned by police. Recognition was assessed using photo line up.
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What are the results of Brigham et als study?
a signifigant effect of age on reliability of eye witness testimony was found. younger children performed worse than older children on photo line up and on recall items.
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what factors have been found to influence a child witness?
Misleading questions, Language - complex language can mislead them and may be asked to use skills they have not yet required. Leading questions.
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what is a flashbulb memory?
detailed, vivid memory of a public or personal event. Argued brains may process such events differently. include info about people and place, emotional state at the time, personal consequences of event.
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according to conway et al, what conditions are neccessary for a flash bulb memory to occur?
Prior knowledge, personal importance, emotional reaction, rehersal.
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Evaluation of flash bulb memories
Finkenarer- there are no special memory mechanisms involved because all of the processes they outlined could be involved in any memories,
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what three issues is concerned in the false memory debate?
whether it is possible to repress memories, whether traumatic experiences can be repressed out of consious awarness and later be recovered, whether false event can be implanted so a person really believes it to have happened.
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How did williams investigate the false memory debate?
participants who had been sexually abused were interviewed. Results - 38% denied ever being abused. CA - women may have been too embarrased to talk about it rather than have repressed the memory.
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Evaluation of repression?
no scientific evidence for it, difficult to test, - scientific experiment of repression would be unethical.
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outline loftus, feld man and dahiells study of false memories?
p's asked to read 4 short paragraphs each describing different childhood event. 3 were actual events which had happened to them and 4th did not 'getting lost in supermarket' p's asked to recall any additional details they could remember.
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Results of Loftus feldman and dashiells study?
6 reported our of 24 participants remmbering the false event and provided additional details.
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Evaluation of false memory research?
being lost in a supermarket is a likely event and therefoe should implant more unlikely event e.g. child abuse. however, would be unethical to implant false memory of abuse.
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outline Mazzoni et als study?
group completed a dream survey and were given 30 minute analysis during which it was suggested to them that they had either been lost in a crowd or bullied. A control group had a non suggestive dream session.
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What are the resuslts of Mazzoni et als study?
Half of the experimental group now reported confidently that the critical (false) life event had occured. The controls reported no changes in LEI. - therefore possible to manipulate memoery through dream interpritation.
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what are important points included in the Brandon report?
Recovered memory syndrome - child hood abuse is remembered for first time during therapy is a myth. Memory is faliable and open to question, it is not possible to block out of the mind traumatic events such as sexual abuse which is recovered later.
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How did shepard, davies and Ellis study the feature theory of face recognition?

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Participants shown unfamiliar faces for short time and then asked to describe the faces they had been shown. Features most often noted were hair, eyes, nose, mouth.

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What did Ellis et all note?

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How do scrambled faces provide evidence against feature theory?

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How do inverted faces provide evidence against feature theory?

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