Cognition and Law

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  • Created by: Beth
  • Created on: 22-05-16 14:39
Three stage process Cohen suggested to recognise a face.
FACE RECOGNITION, FACE IDENTIFICATION AND FACE RECALL.
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Research to support face recognition.
Bahrick - teachers asked to recognise/identify faces of present and former students - found recognition better than identification, memory deteriorated over time.
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Name the two explanations for face recognition.
Feature Analysis Theory (FAT), and Holistic Form Theory (HFT).
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What is feature analysis theory?
Bottom-up theory - reliance on features to recognise someone - individual pieces make up bigger picture.
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Name the study that supports FAT and what was found.
Shepherd et al - unfamiliar faces described using features (e.g. hair, eyes, nose).
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What study contradicts FAT?
Woodhead et al - 3 day course learning to recognise features - less able to identify 'wanted criminal' than the control group.
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What is Holistic Form Theory?
Top-down approach - recognising face needs semantic and emotional information.
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Clinical evidence supporting HFT.
Prosopagnosia - cannot recognise own reflection but feel like they know them. Capgras - experience delusion that everyone is a 'double' - no emotional recognition.
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Support for HFT.
Young and Hay - famous faces - longer recall when two different faces put together.
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Name the four stages in Bruce and Young's progressive model of face recognition.
1. Face is structurally encoded. 2. FRU (face recognition unit) triggered. (have/haven't seen face before) 3. PIN (personal identity node) triggered. (personal info) 4. Name generated. (PIN must be activated to access name)
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Three types of composite systems.
Photo-FIT, E-FIT and Evo-FIT.
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What is photo-fit?
855 features on jigsaw-like pieces - slot onto template - features can be enhanced.
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What is E-FIT?
Computerised version of photo-FIT, more realistic.
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What is Evo-FIT?
It is when complete faces are generated - six of 18 faces are chosen, mixed together to make 'offspring' - continues till good likeness is confirmed.
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Research support for Composite Systems.
Ellis et al - photoFIT vs hand-drawn sketch - sketch was more accurate than the photo-FIT.
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Name the two types of identification procedures.
Simultaneous line-ups and sequential line-ups.
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What is a simultaneous line-up?
It is when witness is presented with all members of the line-up all at one time, allowing direct comparison.
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What is a sequential line-up?
It is when the witness is presented with members of the line-up individually, allowing comparison to their memory.
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A meta-analysis comparing eyewitness performance using simultaneous and sequential line-ups suggests...
sequential line-ups reduce # of false identifications but more likely that real culprits will escapee conviction.
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What is relative judgement?
Comparing people in the line-up.
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What is absolute judgement?
Comparing people with their own memory.
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Name the three factors affecting the outcome of line-up procedures.
Appearance of the foils, demand characteristics (police officer knowing who is the suspect), Feedback.
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Name the three factors that can affect the reliability of eyewitness accounts.
Post-Event Contamination, Emotion/Stress and Weapon Focus.
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Post-event contamination is when...
witness's memory of an event is affected after the event. could be because of: LEADING QUESTIONS, NON-EXISTENT ITEMS, TRANSFERRED MEMORIES and WITNESS DISCUSSION.
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Research support for Post-Event Contamination.
LOFTUS - speed of car in film - BUGS BUNNY STUDY.
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Emotion/stress can affect Eye-Witness Testimony as...
anxiety caused by exposure to a tramautic event can affect the accuracy of EW recall.
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Research support of Emotion/Stress.
Loftus & Burns - video of bank robbery. Yuille & Cutshall - petrol station robbery.
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Weapon Focus affects EWT as...
weapons distract the individual from the situation and they focus on the weapon instead, making it less accurate.
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Research support for weapon focus.
Loftus et al - pen vs knife.
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How can eyewitness recall be improved?
The Cognitive Interview.
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Name four components of the Cognitive Interview.
Change in narrative order, change of perspective, mental reinstatement of context, and report everything.
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Research support of the Cognitive Interview.
Geiselman et al - CI, standard interview, hypnosis.
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Four reasons why children are not useful eyewitnesses.
1. Less reliable. 2. post-event contamination (more susceptible to leading Q's). 3. infantile amnesia. 4. Source monitoring (hard to distinguish between what they experienced and what others have)
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Research support for children as eyewitnesses.
Poole & Lindsay - Mr Science (source monitoring)
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What are Flashbulb Memories?
Long-lasting vivid recollection of the context in which the memory occured, which is traumatic and shocking. Can sometimes be linked to historical events.
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What does early work suggest about flashbulb memories?
They are specially preserved in neural mechanisms in the temporal or frontal lobes, and they were largely immune to normal forgetting.
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Neisser and Harsch suggested what from their study of flashbulb memory?
Suggest that flashbulb memories can deteriorate, and inconsistencies can occur. (discredits flashbulb memory having long-lasting effects)
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What other part of the brain is suggested to be involved with flashbulb memories?
the AMYGDALA (normally associated with emotion)
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Name the study that studied flashbulb memory.
Sharot et al - 24 participants, 3 years after 9/11 - some within 5 mile radius of the attack, some not - asked to recall 9/11 and two other personal events in 2001 - MRI scanned - asked to rate vividness of memories.
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What did Sharot et al find?
Participants within 5 mile radius showed amygdala activity when recalling 9/11 but not with other events. Rated 9/11 more vivid too. Participants not within 5 mile radius showed no differences.
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What is the false memory debate?
Is a memory repressed and then recovered, or is it a memory that didn't actually take place but is believed to have occured by an individual.
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Who takes the repressed memory side of the debate, and what do they suggest?
FREUD - suggested memories of unpleasant events can be unconsciously repressed to protect the conscious self - can be repressed forever.
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Research support for Repression.
Williams - 129 women (18-31yrs) abused between ages of 10 months to 12 yrs - interviewed - 38% of women failed to report abusive episode - classed as 'repression'.
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Evaluation for repressed memories.
1. FLASHBULB contradicts - surel traumatic would repress not remember? 2. Memories product of suggestion? 3. Research is unfalsifiable.
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Who takes the false memory side of the debate, and what do they suggest?
LOFTUS - asking people to imagine events that never took place can lead to a belief that the non-existent events took place.
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Research support for false memory.
LOFTUS & KETCHAM - false memory of lost in shopping centre introduced - ppts got more confident each time mentioned & added extra details not told about. LINDSAY - college students told stories about school, 2 true, one false 'slime in desk'.
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Evaluation of false memory
1. causes of recovered memory through therapy are FALSE memories. 2. Findings of studies may not be generalised - artifical settings. 3. False memories affected by ID - some people more susceptible.
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What implications can false memories have?
Ethical and Theoretical - PEOPLE ARE WRONGLY ACCUSED BECAUSE THERAPISTS SUGGEST MEMORIES, AND PATIENT THINKS THEY HAVE EXPERIENCED THEM.
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Ethical implications of false memory.
1. Wrongly accused. 2. Family may split because of it. 3. Unhappiness, could lead to mental health issues or psych harm. 4. Therapists tempted to let own beliefs affect their interpretation of the case.
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Theoretical implications of false memory.
1. Lost memories being recovered = consistent with Freud. 2. If memories are false and made up = consistent with Loftus.
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Why have guidelines been put in place?
Becuase Psychologists should guard against actively seeking for memories of abuse, and should avoid suggestion.
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The British False Memory Society (BFMS) was set up and analysed the background of their members, what did they find?
87% accusers were female. Accused biological father. Many recieving therapy. 59% cases led to broken contact in family. 14% cases involved legal proceedings.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Bahrick - teachers asked to recognise/identify faces of present and former students - found recognition better than identification, memory deteriorated over time.

Back

Research to support face recognition.

Card 3

Front

Feature Analysis Theory (FAT), and Holistic Form Theory (HFT).

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Bottom-up theory - reliance on features to recognise someone - individual pieces make up bigger picture.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Shepherd et al - unfamiliar faces described using features (e.g. hair, eyes, nose).

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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