Cognition and Emotion

HideShow resource information
What would cognitive psychologists control?
Lab conditions and experiments to essentially ignore emotional effects on cognitive tasks
1 of 150
What is a factor?
emotion is a factor which may be important but whose inclusion at this point would unecessarily complicate the cognitive-scientific enterprise
2 of 150
What is the definition of affect?
The experience of feeling or emotion
3 of 150
What is the definition of emotion?
Brief but intense experience,
4 of 150
What is an affective judgement?
A decision on what a person likes/dislikes
5 of 150
What is Watson and Clark's definition of emotions?
We define as distinct, intergrated psychophysiological response systems... an emotion contains 3 differentiable response systems 1) prototypic form of expression (facial), pattern of automatic changes and subjective feeling state
6 of 150
What are the three components of emotion?
Behaviour, physiological bodily response, feeling
7 of 150
How do we classify emotional experiences?
Huge number of emotional states, happiness, sadness, interest, boredom
8 of 150
What are the two approaches to classify emotional experiences?
Basic emotion approach, Dimensional approach
9 of 150
What are the big five emotions under the basic emotions approach?
Anger, digust, fear, happiness, sadness
10 of 150
What are they?
Universal/pan-cultural and hence are independent of culture and upbringing
11 of 150
What did Ekman et al study?
Recognition of emotion studies
12 of 150
What characteristics determine whether an emotion is a basic one?
Distinct universal signals, dinstinct physiology, present in other primates, quick onser, brief duration, distinct thoughts, memories, images and subjective experience
13 of 150
Who studied the affect grid?
Lang
14 of 150
What did they study?
2 dimensions, valence and arousal
15 of 150
What were Pps asked to do?
Rate pictures in terms of 2 dimensions
16 of 150
For example?
Bunny- Positive, low arousal
17 of 150
how were their emotions measured?
Self assessment manikin, 9 point rating scale
18 of 150
What is valence?
attractiveness
19 of 150
What are problems with this ?
Some emotions combine attributes that dimensional models are incompatible with
20 of 150
For example?
Nostalgia: combines +ve valence of past experiences with the -ve valence (sadness or regret at their passing)
21 of 150
What is the first theory of emotion?
james- Lange theory
22 of 150
What is the James-Lange theory?
Stimulus --> sensory perception --> bodily changes/specific autonomic rousal (heart rate) --> particular emotional experience (fear)
23 of 150
What is the subjective experience of emotion?
A slave to the physiology of emotion
24 of 150
what does the feedback from bodily changes lead to?
Experiencing an emotion
25 of 150
What does behaviour prededes?
Cognition
26 of 150
Why does love feel difference to fear?
Because each has a unique physiological signature
27 of 150
What is the Cannon-Bard theory?
Stimulus --> Sensory perception --> General automatic arousal or particular emotion experiences at the same time
28 of 150
What is the last theory of Emotion?
A cognitive theory by Schacter and Singer
29 of 150
What did they propose?
The Arousal interpretation theory
30 of 150
What are the 2 factors essential for the experience of emotion/
High physiological arousal, an emotional interpretation of that arousal
31 of 150
What is the theory?
Stimulus --> sensory perception --> General automatic arousal --> cognitive appraisals + context previous experience, prior knowledge --> particular emotional experience
32 of 150
What did Schachter and Singer lie about?
Investigating effects of a vitamin compound on vision?
33 of 150
What were 3 groups injected with?
Adrenalin, 1 group with saline solution and not told about any effects
34 of 150
Of those injected with adrenaline what were some people told?
Correctly informed about side effects, misinformed and not informed
35 of 150
What happened after the participants were placed in a situation?
Aimed to produce joy/euphoria or anger
36 of 150
How was the emotional states of pps assesseD?
Self-report questionnaire and independent judges
37 of 150
what happened to the Euphoria groups?
Misinformed group felt the happiest, followed by the ignorant grou, followed by the informed group(Least emotion)
38 of 150
Who felt the angriest?
Ignorant/uninformed group, followed by the placebo group, informed group
39 of 150
What about the pps in euphoria group/
reported feeling the happiest and vice versa
40 of 150
Desite the identical physiological response in the adrenaline groups, what was experience of emotion influenced by?
Information previously given and the situation that the pps was in, support for a cognitive component in the experience of emotion
41 of 150
Does affect require cognition?
No
42 of 150
As suggested by who?
Zajonc, affect and cognition are seperate and partially independent systems
43 of 150
What was claimed?
Cognitive processes are not necessary to produce and affective response to a stimulus
44 of 150
What is the affective primacy debate?
Does emotion come before cogniton
45 of 150
How was this tested?
Variant of the mere exposure effect, an effect in which previously presented stimuli are preferred to novel ones
46 of 150
What is the mere exposure expt?
Presented items (images) subliminally to participants whilst involved in a different primary task, they then made preference judgements to stimuli set presented above plus new/novel stimuli
47 of 150
What were the results?
Pps gave higher liking ratings to the previously seen stimuli
48 of 150
what does this suggest?
An emotional response despite no cognitive processing of the subliminal stimuli
49 of 150
What does emotion precedes cognition?
Cognition not required for an emotional experience
50 of 150
What was Murphy and Zajonic's experiment?
Prime stimulus (angry or happy face) 2nd stimulus (chinese ideograph) rating of likability
51 of 150
What were ratings of liking influenced by?
Affective/emotional primes but ony when presented for 4 ms
52 of 150
What happened at 1 sec?
time for cognitive processes to kick in
53 of 150
What did Zajonic find
Cognitive appraisal is not required to experience an emotion
54 of 150
What did Lazarus develop?
A theory from Schachter and Singer's work 'Cognitive appraisal underlies and is an intergral feature of all emotional states
55 of 150
What is Cognitive appraisal?
the interpretation of a situation that helps to determine the nature and intensity of the emotional response
56 of 150
What did Speisman, Lazarus and Mordkoff show?
anxiety evoking films: stone age circumcision ritural, workshop accidents
57 of 150
What were the four conditions?
No soundtrack, trauma narrative, denial narractive, scientific narrative
58 of 150
What did they measure?
Arousal.stress using during viewing
59 of 150
What did 3 and 4 result in?
Reduced stress/emotional response compared to 2, when contrasted with 1
60 of 150
Therefore, what was manipulated?
Appraisials influences an emotional experience
61 of 150
What are appraisals?
Evaluations of a situation relevent to our goals, concerns and wellbeing
62 of 150
what is primary appraisals?
Identify the stimulus as to whether there is a threat t personal well being (positive, stressful, irrelevant, significance.meaning of the event to the individual
63 of 150
What is secondary appraisals?
DEtermine what personal resources are available to cope with the situation
64 of 150
What are reappraisals?
Moitor 1 and 2 appraisals and modify if necessary
65 of 150
What two things are under primary appraisal?
Motivational relevent, motivational congruence
66 of 150
What four things are found under secondary appraisal?
Accountability, problem focused coping potential, emotion-focused coping potential, future expectancy
67 of 150
How can different emotional states be distinguished?
Anger and guilt both have 1 and 2, differ by 2 components
68 of 150
What is mood congruity effect?
Finding that learning is often best when the material learned has the same affective value as the learner's mood state
69 of 150
What is this also called?
Mood dependent memory
70 of 150
Who investigated it and what did he state?
Bower, REcall is best when the mood state at learning is the same as the state at retrieval recall
71 of 150
How was this experimentally investigated?
Naturally occuring mood states, parachute jump, roller coaster ride to cause fear
72 of 150
What is mood induction procedure?
Under lab conditions
73 of 150
How did Bower induce emotions?
By hypnosis, ps asked to imagine past happy or sad events
74 of 150
What did Niedenthal ask?
listen to music
75 of 150
What did Velten ask his participants to do?
REading vignetes, series of sentences about themselves inteded to increase feelings of elation or depression
76 of 150
What were the last two mood induction procedures?
Gift giving, rating scale questionnaires
77 of 150
What did Bower do?
2 groups, hypnotic mood induction (happy and sad), learn 2 lists of neutral words in different mood, 1/2 Ps learn A (happy and sad) and the same amount for B, reinduce mood, free recall list A
78 of 150
What was the theory of Bower's semantic networl?
Thoery proposed to explain some of the effects of mood on cognitive processes
79 of 150
What are the key assumptions?
Emotions are nodes in a semantic network, having connections to related ideas, physiological systems, events and expressive patterns
80 of 150
What is an example of semantic network theory of emotion?
Sadness emotion node: output: expressive behaviours, autonomic patterns, names, input: Someone upsets you, death of a loved one, internal or external input
81 of 150
What is an inhibition node?
Happiness
82 of 150
how do you explain mood state dependent recall?
Items become associated with an emotional node,
83 of 150
What if during recall the same mood is activated?
The emotional node in the network is activated, spreading activation to associated nodes in the network
84 of 150
How do you explain mood-congruity effects?
Someone feeling sad should learn more about sad material than if they were feeling happy
85 of 150
According to Bower's network model, what happens to emotionally loaded information?
Sad events stored in the network is more strongly associated with its congruent emotional node
86 of 150
What happened with to be remembered information?
Emotional state links up strongly to this network
87 of 150
How is the mood-congruity effect explained?
Cognitive changes
88 of 150
However, what about mood state changes?
Also results in physiological changes, arousal levels
89 of 150
What did Varner and Ellis?
4 groups of Pps, depressed mood induction, schema induction, neutral mood induction, arousal induction
90 of 150
How were the words reported?
Random list of words derived from 2 lists, free recall test
91 of 150
What was concluded?
arousal has little or no impact on selective processing of mood related information, it is cognitive activity which is important
92 of 150
What is the thought cogruity effect?
The finding that a persons thoughts, judgements, evaluations, freeassociations are often in line/ congruent with their mood state
93 of 150
How can this effect be observed?
Individuals with depression frequently experiencing negative thoughts or evaluating things in a negative light
94 of 150
What did lab studies present?
List containing 2 categories of affective words to pps, pleasant words, unpleasant words,
95 of 150
What happened next?
Mood induce pleasant or unpleasant mood, test recall of words whilst in mood
96 of 150
What was expected?
higher recall from the pleasant subset when in pleasant mood compared to being in an unpleasant mood
97 of 150
What did another approach involve?
Asking people to simply recall personal life events after a mood induction procedure
98 of 150
What did Clark and teasdale test?
Depressive patients,
99 of 150
What did results show?
When depression levels are more severe, fewer happy memories were reported
100 of 150
What does this suggest?
Mood state leads to activation of the relevant emotional node, spreads activtion to other associated nodes of the network, raising the activation of such related information increases the chances of that information entering the conscious
101 of 150
What is attentional bias?
Selective attention to emotionally related stimuli presented at the sametime as neutral ones
102 of 150
What is interpretative bias?
A tendency to interpret a situation or ambiguous stimuli in a negative way
103 of 150
What is a normal stroop?
Shown the names of colours in congruent or incongruent ink and asked to report the colour of the ink, slower on incongruent trials
104 of 150
What is emotional stroop?
Shown both emotional and neutral words in different coloured inks, asked to name ink colour
105 of 150
What did Spielberger measure?
High trait anxiety participants show larger inference effects on the emotional stroop than low trait anxiety individuals
106 of 150
What did he find?
Slower on the emotional words compared to low trait
107 of 150
What does the emotional meaning of the word do?
Captures attention away from the relevant stimulus attribute
108 of 150
When does the slowing effect also occur?
For emotional words even when the words are all in black ink
109 of 150
What did Van honk et al use instead of emotional words?
coloured faces expressing emotion
110 of 150
What did he present?
Angry and neutral coloured faces in red, green, yellow and blue
111 of 150
What was the task?
Ignore the face itself and name the colour of the face
112 of 150
What were the result?
Colour naming latencies are slower for angry faces
113 of 150
When does this even happen?
When we present the expression briefly and mask it with a neutral face
114 of 150
What is the dot probe task look at?
Examines early allocation of attention
115 of 150
What happened
Emotional and neutral information presented side by side to anxious patients and controls
116 of 150
What is examined?
Speed of responses when dot occupies location previously occupied by neutral versus emotional stimuli
117 of 150
What did controls show?
A positive bias
118 of 150
However?
The reverse is true for anxious patients, patients slower for neutral words, tey allocate attention to threat words
119 of 150
dot-probe results are not just shown in clinically anxious patients, so what did Macleod and Mathews suggest?
Tested high and low trait anxious groups of students using DP 1 week and 12 weeks before an important exam
120 of 150
What was shown 1 week before?`
Only high trait anxious students showed bias towards threat related stimul
121 of 150
What about 12 weeks before?
Neither group showed any bias
122 of 150
What happened to high trait anxious students only?
Show bias when they are stressed
123 of 150
how did eyesenck et al show interpretative bias?
Homonym task, present words auditorly, homophones, pain/pane and participants must write down words
124 of 150
Who did he use as pps?
High/low trait anxious
125 of 150
High trait anxiety showed more
more threat related spellings (die)
126 of 150
What did richard and French use?
Homographs instead (dual meanings) batter, punch, stalk in a priming lexical decision
127 of 150
What happens if a prime and word are related?
meaning responses are faster
128 of 150
EG?
Batter-assualt should be faster than batter-pancake if threat related interpretation is made for the homograph prime
129 of 150
What were the results?
: Greater priming effect for target words related in meaning to the negative interpretation of the prime for high anxiety participants
130 of 150
What have faces been shown?
To have some priority for detection compared with non face objects
131 of 150
What is a visual search?
Target and distractors
132 of 150
What is the task
Search for a target and respond absent or present
133 of 150
What varies?
The properties of the target, vary the distractors and or vary the relationship between target and distracter
134 of 150
What is target pop-out?
If detection times for target do not vary as a function of the set size then search is assumed to be parallel, automatic process not requiring attention
135 of 150
What about REaction times?
They vary as a function of set size then search is assumed to be serial and self terminates once target is found, controlled process requiring attention
136 of 150
What happens if target is not present?
then search each item until we reach the last item an then respond no or absent
137 of 150
What about a parallel or serial search?
Target detection is more difficult when target features are shared with the distractors
138 of 150
What about the detection of threatening faces?
Ohman suggests that it is evolutionarily adaptive for us to detect threat quickly and automatically
139 of 150
What about for visual threat related stimuli?
Should be detected faster than non threatening stimuli
140 of 150
What about face in a crowd effec?
If detection of threat is fast and automatic we might expect threatening objects to be detected rapidly in cluttered scenes
141 of 150
What did Hansen and Hansen find out?
finding a discrepant angry face in a crowd, retive to detecting a neutral or happy face
142 of 150
What was experiment 2?
Crowds of 4 faces all containing a discrepant face but very briefly and masked with scrambled letters, angry face in happy crowd and happy face in angry crows
143 of 150
What were all the faces
The same individual
144 of 150
What did the pp have to say?
Where the discrepant face was
145 of 150
What were the findings?
ps took less time to located the angry face in the happy distracters than to locate the happy face in angry distracters
146 of 150
What dont these experiments show?
Whether emotional expressions pop out of crows as the search sets within an experiment were always the same size
147 of 150
What was experiment 3?
Very faces, show angry, happy or neutral expressions, ps respond same or different
148 of 150
What does tis show?
angry, threatenning faces pop out of crowds of happy or neutral faces
149 of 150
What couldnt Purcell et al do?
Replicated the study, saying dark patches on the angry faces, confounding the interpretation of the data
150 of 150

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is a factor?

Back

emotion is a factor which may be important but whose inclusion at this point would unecessarily complicate the cognitive-scientific enterprise

Card 3

Front

What is the definition of affect?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is the definition of emotion?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is an affective judgement?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Cognition and emotion resources »