Cognition and Emotion

What would cognitive psychologists control?
Lab conditions and experiments to essentially ignore emotional effects on cognitive tasks
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What is a factor?
emotion is a factor which may be important but whose inclusion at this point would unecessarily complicate the cognitive-scientific enterprise
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What is the definition of affect?
The experience of feeling or emotion
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What is the definition of emotion?
Brief but intense experience,
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What is an affective judgement?
A decision on what a person likes/dislikes
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What is Watson and Clark's definition of emotions?
We define as distinct, intergrated psychophysiological response systems... an emotion contains 3 differentiable response systems 1) prototypic form of expression (facial), pattern of automatic changes and subjective feeling state
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What are the three components of emotion?
Behaviour, physiological bodily response, feeling
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How do we classify emotional experiences?
Huge number of emotional states, happiness, sadness, interest, boredom
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What are the two approaches to classify emotional experiences?
Basic emotion approach, Dimensional approach
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What are the big five emotions under the basic emotions approach?
Anger, digust, fear, happiness, sadness
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What are they?
Universal/pan-cultural and hence are independent of culture and upbringing
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What did Ekman et al study?
Recognition of emotion studies
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What characteristics determine whether an emotion is a basic one?
Distinct universal signals, dinstinct physiology, present in other primates, quick onser, brief duration, distinct thoughts, memories, images and subjective experience
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Who studied the affect grid?
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What did they study?
2 dimensions, valence and arousal
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What were Pps asked to do?
Rate pictures in terms of 2 dimensions
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For example?
Bunny- Positive, low arousal
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how were their emotions measured?
Self assessment manikin, 9 point rating scale
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What is valence?
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What are problems with this ?
Some emotions combine attributes that dimensional models are incompatible with
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For example?
Nostalgia: combines +ve valence of past experiences with the -ve valence (sadness or regret at their passing)
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What is the first theory of emotion?
james- Lange theory
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What is the James-Lange theory?
Stimulus --> sensory perception --> bodily changes/specific autonomic rousal (heart rate) --> particular emotional experience (fear)
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What is the subjective experience of emotion?
A slave to the physiology of emotion
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what does the feedback from bodily changes lead to?
Experiencing an emotion
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What does behaviour prededes?
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Why does love feel difference to fear?
Because each has a unique physiological signature
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What is the Cannon-Bard theory?
Stimulus --> Sensory perception --> General automatic arousal or particular emotion experiences at the same time
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What is the last theory of Emotion?
A cognitive theory by Schacter and Singer
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What did they propose?
The Arousal interpretation theory
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What are the 2 factors essential for the experience of emotion/
High physiological arousal, an emotional interpretation of that arousal
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What is the theory?
Stimulus --> sensory perception --> General automatic arousal --> cognitive appraisals + context previous experience, prior knowledge --> particular emotional experience
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What did Schachter and Singer lie about?
Investigating effects of a vitamin compound on vision?
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What were 3 groups injected with?
Adrenalin, 1 group with saline solution and not told about any effects
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Of those injected with adrenaline what were some people told?
Correctly informed about side effects, misinformed and not informed
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What happened after the participants were placed in a situation?
Aimed to produce joy/euphoria or anger
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How was the emotional states of pps assesseD?
Self-report questionnaire and independent judges
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what happened to the Euphoria groups?
Misinformed group felt the happiest, followed by the ignorant grou, followed by the informed group(Least emotion)
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Who felt the angriest?
Ignorant/uninformed group, followed by the placebo group, informed group
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What about the pps in euphoria group/
reported feeling the happiest and vice versa
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Desite the identical physiological response in the adrenaline groups, what was experience of emotion influenced by?
Information previously given and the situation that the pps was in, support for a cognitive component in the experience of emotion
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Does affect require cognition?
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As suggested by who?
Zajonc, affect and cognition are seperate and partially independent systems
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What was claimed?
Cognitive processes are not necessary to produce and affective response to a stimulus
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What is the affective primacy debate?
Does emotion come before cogniton
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How was this tested?
Variant of the mere exposure effect, an effect in which previously presented stimuli are preferred to novel ones
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What is the mere exposure expt?
Presented items (images) subliminally to participants whilst involved in a different primary task, they then made preference judgements to stimuli set presented above plus new/novel stimuli
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What were the results?
Pps gave higher liking ratings to the previously seen stimuli
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what does this suggest?
An emotional response despite no cognitive processing of the subliminal stimuli
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What does emotion precedes cognition?
Cognition not required for an emotional experience
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What was Murphy and Zajonic's experiment?
Prime stimulus (angry or happy face) 2nd stimulus (chinese ideograph) rating of likability
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What were ratings of liking influenced by?
Affective/emotional primes but ony when presented for 4 ms
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What happened at 1 sec?
time for cognitive processes to kick in
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What did Zajonic find
Cognitive appraisal is not required to experience an emotion
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What did Lazarus develop?
A theory from Schachter and Singer's work 'Cognitive appraisal underlies and is an intergral feature of all emotional states
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What is Cognitive appraisal?
the interpretation of a situation that helps to determine the nature and intensity of the emotional response
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What did Speisman, Lazarus and Mordkoff show?
anxiety evoking films: stone age circumcision ritural, workshop accidents
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What were the four conditions?
No soundtrack, trauma narrative, denial narractive, scientific narrative
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What did they measure?
Arousal.stress using during viewing
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What did 3 and 4 result in?
Reduced stress/emotional response compared to 2, when contrasted with 1
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Therefore, what was manipulated?
Appraisials influences an emotional experience
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What are appraisals?
Evaluations of a situation relevent to our goals, concerns and wellbeing
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what is primary appraisals?
Identify the stimulus as to whether there is a threat t personal well being (positive, stressful, irrelevant, significance.meaning of the event to the individual
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What is secondary appraisals?
DEtermine what personal resources are available to cope with the situation
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What are reappraisals?
Moitor 1 and 2 appraisals and modify if necessary
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What two things are under primary appraisal?
Motivational relevent, motivational congruence
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What four things are found under secondary appraisal?
Accountability, problem focused coping potential, emotion-focused coping potential, future expectancy
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How can different emotional states be distinguished?
Anger and guilt both have 1 and 2, differ by 2 components
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What is mood congruity effect?
Finding that learning is often best when the material learned has the same affective value as the learner's mood state
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What is this also called?
Mood dependent memory
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Who investigated it and what did he state?
Bower, REcall is best when the mood state at learning is the same as the state at retrieval recall
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How was this experimentally investigated?
Naturally occuring mood states, parachute jump, roller coaster ride to cause fear
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What is mood induction procedure?
Under lab conditions
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How did Bower induce emotions?
By hypnosis, ps asked to imagine past happy or sad events
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What did Niedenthal ask?
listen to music
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What did Velten ask his participants to do?
REading vignetes, series of sentences about themselves inteded to increase feelings of elation or depression
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What were the last two mood induction procedures?
Gift giving, rating scale questionnaires
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What did Bower do?
2 groups, hypnotic mood induction (happy and sad), learn 2 lists of neutral words in different mood, 1/2 Ps learn A (happy and sad) and the same amount for B, reinduce mood, free recall list A
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What was the theory of Bower's semantic networl?
Thoery proposed to explain some of the effects of mood on cognitive processes
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What are the key assumptions?
Emotions are nodes in a semantic network, having connections to related ideas, physiological systems, events and expressive patterns
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What is an example of semantic network theory of emotion?
Sadness emotion node: output: expressive behaviours, autonomic patterns, names, input: Someone upsets you, death of a loved one, internal or external input
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What is an inhibition node?
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how do you explain mood state dependent recall?
Items become associated with an emotional node,
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What if during recall the same mood is activated?
The emotional node in the network is activated, spreading activation to associated nodes in the network
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How do you explain mood-congruity effects?
Someone feeling sad should learn more about sad material than if they were feeling happy
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According to Bower's network model, what happens to emotionally loaded information?
Sad events stored in the network is more strongly associated with its congruent emotional node
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What happened with to be remembered information?
Emotional state links up strongly to this network
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How is the mood-congruity effect explained?
Cognitive changes
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However, what about mood state changes?
Also results in physiological changes, arousal levels
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What did Varner and Ellis?
4 groups of Pps, depressed mood induction, schema induction, neutral mood induction, arousal induction
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How were the words reported?
Random list of words derived from 2 lists, free recall test
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What was concluded?
arousal has little or no impact on selective processing of mood related information, it is cognitive activity which is important
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What is the thought cogruity effect?
The finding that a persons thoughts, judgements, evaluations, freeassociations are often in line/ congruent with their mood state
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How can this effect be observed?
Individuals with depression frequently experiencing negative thoughts or evaluating things in a negative light
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What did lab studies present?
List containing 2 categories of affective words to pps, pleasant words, unpleasant words,
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What happened next?
Mood induce pleasant or unpleasant mood, test recall of words whilst in mood
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What was expected?
higher recall from the pleasant subset when in pleasant mood compared to being in an unpleasant mood
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What did another approach involve?
Asking people to simply recall personal life events after a mood induction procedure
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What did Clark and teasdale test?
Depressive patients,
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What did results show?
When depression levels are more severe, fewer happy memories were reported
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What does this suggest?
Mood state leads to activation of the relevant emotional node, spreads activtion to other associated nodes of the network, raising the activation of such related information increases the chances of that information entering the conscious
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What is attentional bias?
Selective attention to emotionally related stimuli presented at the sametime as neutral ones
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What is interpretative bias?
A tendency to interpret a situation or ambiguous stimuli in a negative way
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What is a normal stroop?
Shown the names of colours in congruent or incongruent ink and asked to report the colour of the ink, slower on incongruent trials
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What is emotional stroop?
Shown both emotional and neutral words in different coloured inks, asked to name ink colour
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What did Spielberger measure?
High trait anxiety participants show larger inference effects on the emotional stroop than low trait anxiety individuals
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What did he find?
Slower on the emotional words compared to low trait
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What does the emotional meaning of the word do?
Captures attention away from the relevant stimulus attribute
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When does the slowing effect also occur?
For emotional words even when the words are all in black ink
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What did Van honk et al use instead of emotional words?
coloured faces expressing emotion
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What did he present?
Angry and neutral coloured faces in red, green, yellow and blue
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What was the task?
Ignore the face itself and name the colour of the face
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What were the result?
Colour naming latencies are slower for angry faces
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When does this even happen?
When we present the expression briefly and mask it with a neutral face
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What is the dot probe task look at?
Examines early allocation of attention
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What happened
Emotional and neutral information presented side by side to anxious patients and controls
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What is examined?
Speed of responses when dot occupies location previously occupied by neutral versus emotional stimuli
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What did controls show?
A positive bias
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The reverse is true for anxious patients, patients slower for neutral words, tey allocate attention to threat words
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dot-probe results are not just shown in clinically anxious patients, so what did Macleod and Mathews suggest?
Tested high and low trait anxious groups of students using DP 1 week and 12 weeks before an important exam
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What was shown 1 week before?`
Only high trait anxious students showed bias towards threat related stimul
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What about 12 weeks before?
Neither group showed any bias
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What happened to high trait anxious students only?
Show bias when they are stressed
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how did eyesenck et al show interpretative bias?
Homonym task, present words auditorly, homophones, pain/pane and participants must write down words
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Who did he use as pps?
High/low trait anxious
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High trait anxiety showed more
more threat related spellings (die)
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What did richard and French use?
Homographs instead (dual meanings) batter, punch, stalk in a priming lexical decision
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What happens if a prime and word are related?
meaning responses are faster
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Batter-assualt should be faster than batter-pancake if threat related interpretation is made for the homograph prime
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What were the results?
: Greater priming effect for target words related in meaning to the negative interpretation of the prime for high anxiety participants
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What have faces been shown?
To have some priority for detection compared with non face objects
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What is a visual search?
Target and distractors
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What is the task
Search for a target and respond absent or present
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What varies?
The properties of the target, vary the distractors and or vary the relationship between target and distracter
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What is target pop-out?
If detection times for target do not vary as a function of the set size then search is assumed to be parallel, automatic process not requiring attention
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What about REaction times?
They vary as a function of set size then search is assumed to be serial and self terminates once target is found, controlled process requiring attention
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What happens if target is not present?
then search each item until we reach the last item an then respond no or absent
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What about a parallel or serial search?
Target detection is more difficult when target features are shared with the distractors
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What about the detection of threatening faces?
Ohman suggests that it is evolutionarily adaptive for us to detect threat quickly and automatically
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What about for visual threat related stimuli?
Should be detected faster than non threatening stimuli
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What about face in a crowd effec?
If detection of threat is fast and automatic we might expect threatening objects to be detected rapidly in cluttered scenes
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What did Hansen and Hansen find out?
finding a discrepant angry face in a crowd, retive to detecting a neutral or happy face
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What was experiment 2?
Crowds of 4 faces all containing a discrepant face but very briefly and masked with scrambled letters, angry face in happy crowd and happy face in angry crows
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What were all the faces
The same individual
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What did the pp have to say?
Where the discrepant face was
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What were the findings?
ps took less time to located the angry face in the happy distracters than to locate the happy face in angry distracters
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What dont these experiments show?
Whether emotional expressions pop out of crows as the search sets within an experiment were always the same size
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What was experiment 3?
Very faces, show angry, happy or neutral expressions, ps respond same or different
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What does tis show?
angry, threatenning faces pop out of crowds of happy or neutral faces
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What couldnt Purcell et al do?
Replicated the study, saying dark patches on the angry faces, confounding the interpretation of the data
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is a factor?


emotion is a factor which may be important but whose inclusion at this point would unecessarily complicate the cognitive-scientific enterprise

Card 3


What is the definition of affect?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is the definition of emotion?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is an affective judgement?


Preview of the front of card 5
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