• Created by: Ben1230
  • Created on: 10-01-19 10:38
What is sensation?
Sense organs detect energy.
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What is perception?
The analysis of the information from sensory organs.
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APA definition of Cognition.
all forms of knowing and awareness, such as perceiving…it is one of the three traditionally identified components of mind.
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What is a top-down approach?
emphasis on existing knowledge and prior expectations
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What is bottom up processing?
Emphasis on the environment.
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Gibson, 1947
performance tests using pictures didn’t relate to actual performance
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ecological optics
indirect perception
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What are invariants?
properties of an environment that remain static
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Size-distance invariance (Holway & Boring, 1941)
perceived size relates directly to perceived distance
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Gibson (1979)
the end goal wasn’t a visual representation of the world that you then act on
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(Gregory, 1997, p.1121)
“…perceptions are regarded as similar to predictive hypotheses in science, but are psychologically projected into external space and accepted as our most immediate reality.”
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The Hollow Face Illusion
Gregory, 1970
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Kanisza, 1955
Kanisza Illusion
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Kanisza Illusion 1955
This involves hypothesising a nearer surface which occludes objects below (Gregory, 1972)
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Weisstein & Harris (1974)
perceptual properties of a display are picked out faster if part of an object
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Configural superiority effect
more concerned with context aiding perception
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Wertheimer (1923) - Gestalt Laws
Proximity, Similarity, Closure, Good Continuation, Common Fate
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Object-Centred Representations - Biederman, 1987
form is based on the shape of the object
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What is attention? APA
A state in which cognitive resources are focused on certain aspects of the environment rather than on others and the central nervous system is in a state of readiness to respond to stimuli
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Feature Integration Theory (Treisman & Gelade, 1980)
Explain the results of visual search
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Duncan & Humphreys (1989)
When the orientations of the ‘T’ s was mixed participants took significantly longer to find the ‘L’
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Dichotic Listening Tasks
Broadbent (1952)
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Filter Theory (Broadbent, 1958)
We filter out information on the basis of physical characteristics. Filtering occurs very early, right after stimuli have been registered by our senses, and before any higher level perceptual processing has taken place
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Cherry (1953)
Cocktail party effect
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Attenuation Model (Treisman, 1964)
Attenuation refers to information not being filtered out completely, but few cognitive resources being allocated to it
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more permanent form of memory that we can hold a lot in
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Murdock (1962)
serial position, probability of recall
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Glanzer & Cunitz (1966)
Murdock (1962), delay task, spacing
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Spiers et al., 2001
Spiers et al (2001) investigated 147 cases of amnesia. Each one had lost some component had declarative memory. None had suffered impairment to their procedural memory.
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patient KF; Shallice & Warrington, 1970
A smaller number of patients have impaired abilities over the short term, but can have much better long term learning. Had LTM intact.
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Baddeley & Logie (1999, p.29)
humans to comprehend and mentally represent their immediate environment, to retain information about their immediate past experience, to support the acquisition of new knowledge, to solve problems, and to formulate, relate, and act on current goals.
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Baddeley & Hitch (1974)
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Conrad (1964)-PL
Ps visually presented letter sequences. Confused similar sounds. STM acoustic code.
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Baddeley et al., (1975, Exp 3)
word length
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Gathercole and Baddeley 1996
Follow letter F while describing angles.
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Miyake et al. (2000)
Shifting, Updating and inhibition.
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Levels of Processing (Craik & Lockhart, 1972)
Capacity, coding, retention.
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(Craik & Tulving, 1975)
Ten experiments reported Participants presented with lists of words. Different processing. If deeper processing leads to better performance then it is the ‘kind’ of processing that is important.
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Morris, Bransford & Franks, 1977
Effects of depth reversed depending on the final test
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Thomson & Tulving, 1970
Successful retrieval of the target item increases with the overlap between the additional context stored with the memory and the information employed at retrieval.
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Godden & Baddeley (1975)
Ppts. Studied word lists on land or underwater
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What is common between languages?
Communicative, Arbitrarily symbolic, Regularly structured, Structured at multiple levels, Productive, Dynamic.
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Psycho linguistic methods?
Behaviour, Brain and Mathematical models.
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phonemic restoration effect
We use word knowledge to make a ‘best guess’ as to identity of the speech signal.
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The McGurk effect- (McGurk & MacDonald, 1976)
Acoustic and visual information is integrated during speech perception
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The Mental Lexicon
Webs of words, internal dictionary.
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(Gigerenzer & Gaissmaier, 2011) .- Heuristics
Heuristics are efficient cognitive processes, conscious or unconscious, that ignore part of the information
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Availability Heuristic
People estimate the likelihood or frequency by the ease with which examples can be brought to mind.
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1990’s Schwarz
List 6 instances in which you have behaved assertively How assertive are you on a scale of 1-5 (1 = not assertive at all, 5 = extremely assertive)? If you were asked to give 12 instances do you think your judgement would have changed? And how?
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Representativeness Heuristic
Used to determine how likely it is that an event is a member of a category by considering how similar or typical the event is of the category.
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(Kahneman & Tversky, 1973)
Is Jack an engineer? Half ** told the description was taken from a sample of 70 engineers and 30 lawyers Half ** told sample of 30 engineers and 70 lawyers. Shows that people ignore information about base rates and make judgements using the individ
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Conjuction fallacy
where a conjunction of two events is judged to be more likely than one of those events alone.
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Kahneman & Tversky (1973)
Of course, though all feminist bank clerks are bank clerks, feminist bank clerks are more representative of people interested in liberal causes than bank clerks in general.
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Anchor & Adjust Heuristic
Used when people make estimates by starting from an initial value and then adjust it to arrive at their final estimate.
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Wilson et al., (1996) demonstrated this heuristic
Used a random spinner wheel between 0 and 100. On each Q the wheel was spun and ** asked first whether the answer was above or below where the wheel had stopped. Then gave their actual estimate to the Q
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Northcraft & Neale, (1987)
All inspected a specific house and were given a 10pg info pack about the house. Given asking prices swayed valuations 11-14%.
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LeBoeuf & Shafir (2006)
Uncertainty of what the line should look like causes you to stop nearer the bottom of the region of uncertainty when you start from the bottom and vice versa.
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priming effect. Mussweiler & Strack (1999)
“Is the annual mean temperature in Germany higher or lower than 20°C (68F)?” OR “Is the annual mean temperature in Germany higher or lower than 5°C (40F)?” All participants then shown words they were asked to identify.
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Gigerenzer’s (1996) criticisms of kahneman & tversky.
Heuristic labels remain vague despite years of research. Merely descriptive labels. Ignore content and context.
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Gigerenzer & Goldstein (1996). Contemporary Perspective
they are actually useful.
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Gigerenzer & Gaissmaier (2011) offer a more ecologically valid explanation of decision making in the real world
Most situations do not give us information such as base rates, so making judgements based on representativeness is sensible.
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Serwe & Frings (2006)
Asked amateur tennis players which players they recognised. Knew about half of the Wimbledon contestants This was a better predictor of the 2004 Wimbledon match outcomes (72% correct) than the ATP entry rankings (66%) or the ATP Champions Race (68%)
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Hoyer & Brown, (1990)
found that brand recognition can be even more important than attributes that are a more direct reflection of quality.
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What is reasoning?
Reasoning is a form of thinking. Understanding of reasoning has been strongly influenced by what we know about formal logic.
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Form of logical reasoning?
if _____, then ___’. Logic provides a set of rules to determine if an inference is logically valid.
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What components of deductive reasoning are there?
Propositions and Connectives
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Modus Ponens (MP)
The inference is a logically valid. All true.
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Truth Tables: Modus Tollens (MT)
FFT. logically valid inference.
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Affirming the Consequent (AC)
Not a logically valid inference.
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Denying the Antecedent (DA)
not a logically valid inference.
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Blanchette & Richards (2004)
‘If a person rides a bicycle, then they burn calories’
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Marcus & Rips (1979)
The MP form is obvious and most people readily (typically nearly 100%) make it when content is sensible. However MT is not as intuitively obvious so most find this inference much harder (50% do not make this valid inference)
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Wason Selection Task (1968) Aim?
Do people apply logic by falsifying and confirming it. Turn over cards to confirm a rule.
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Example WST (1968)
Beer and Age.
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WST (1968) Results
1 in 4 got it right. Context helps.
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Mental logic theories Rips 1994
People use formal rules of inference but people do not possess all possible rules. This means that some inferences will be more difficult.
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Mental Model Theory
People are capable of logical reasoning in principle. Mental model constructed and conclusions generated.uses working memory
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Probabilistic approach Oaksford & Chater, 2003
The degree to which inferences are endorsed depends on the appropriate conditional probability.
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Card 2


What is perception?


The analysis of the information from sensory organs.

Card 3


APA definition of Cognition.


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What is a top-down approach?


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Card 5


What is bottom up processing?


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