Cognative Psychology

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sensory memory
stimuli coming into the memory system from external enviroment - iconic store for visual input- echoic store for auditory input- haptic store for tactile input
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Short-term memory
Can only hold a limited amount of information at any time. - capacity, limited(7+or-2)- duration, very limited(30 seconds to a minute)- encoding, mainly acoustic - forgetting, mainly displacement
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Long-term memory
information can remain Perminently unless their is some danger or distruption to the system.- capacity, unlimited- duration, unlimited- encoding, mainly semantic- forgetting, mainly interface
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The Atkinson and Shiffrin model (Multi store model)
envisaged memory as a flow of information which goes from the sensory memory store, from there it either decays or goes into the STM which has limited duration and capacity. it will be forgot unless repeated, if repeated then in will go into the LTM
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Baddeley (1988) visual sensory store
believed the purpose of the VSS is to allow us to intergrate visual information so that we experience a smooth continuous visual experience.
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Encoding
the way in which information is represented in the memory store
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Sperling (1960) sensory memory
showed a flash of 12 letters and only 4 or 5 were recalled but participents were aware of more. experiment 2-then added sound (high,medium,low) tones. and asked them to recall a line corresponding to the tone. which were repeated to tone
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Displacement
a type of forgetting where the items currently in the limited capacity STM are pushed out before being transferred to LTM to make room for incoming items.
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Glanzer & Cunitz (1966)- functional dissociation
gave participents list of words presented one at a time and then tested their free recall. two conditions; condition1- participents were asked to recall the words immidiately.- condition2, participents were given a distractor task before recall.
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Free recall
a way of testing memory where participants can recall items from a list in any order
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Peterson & Peterson (1959) duration of items in STM without rehearsal
gave participants consonent trigram, then had count to either 3,6,9,12,15 or 18 seconds. they then had to repeat the trigram which was repeated several times. recalled 80% with 3 seconds, recalled 10% with 18 seconds interval.
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working memory model- central executive
central executive (has limited capacity but can process information from any sensory system.)
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working memory model- Phonological loop
phonological loop (sometimes called 'inner voice' is a limited capacity, temporary storage system for holding verbal information in a speech based form.
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working memory model- visuo-spatial sketchpad
visuo-spatial sketchpad (sometimes called 'inner eye' is a limited capacity, temporary memory system for holding visual and/or spatial information.
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Baddeley, thomson and buchanan (1975) phonological loop
gave visual presentations of word lists for a very brief exposure and then asked participents to write them down in serial order. they found that the capacity of the loop is determined by the length of time it takes to say a word.
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Baddeley et al (1973) visio-spatial sketchpad
given task to follow a spot of light whilst carrying out a simultanious visual imagery task (they had to imagine looking a block capitals of letters) they found it enourmously difficult to track the spot as well as accurately classifying corners.
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Card 2

Front

Can only hold a limited amount of information at any time. - capacity, limited(7+or-2)- duration, very limited(30 seconds to a minute)- encoding, mainly acoustic - forgetting, mainly displacement

Back

Short-term memory

Card 3

Front

information can remain Perminently unless their is some danger or distruption to the system.- capacity, unlimited- duration, unlimited- encoding, mainly semantic- forgetting, mainly interface

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

envisaged memory as a flow of information which goes from the sensory memory store, from there it either decays or goes into the STM which has limited duration and capacity. it will be forgot unless repeated, if repeated then in will go into the LTM

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

believed the purpose of the VSS is to allow us to intergrate visual information so that we experience a smooth continuous visual experience.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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