cognative development

HideShow resource information
Cognitive development and the education of children?
piaget
1 of 100
Biological drive?
: Piaget suggested that humans are born with a biological drive to maintain equilibrium (ensuring our mental representations- schema- about our experience of the world) to avoid cognitive dissonance- a stressor
2 of 100
how do we achieve biological drive?
We achieve this through two processes: accommodation (fitting new information to our existing schema) occurs first, i.e. if a child had learnt the word ‘dog’, they will assume all 4-legged animals are dogs.
3 of 100
what happens when too many instances occur?
When too many instances occur which do not completely fit our existing cognitive structures, assimilation occurs (new schema are constructed to represent this new category of animal, i.e. an animal with 4 legs and fur which meows is a ‘cat’).
4 of 100
biological maturation?
the cognitive abilities children are able to demonstrate are controlled by processes of biological maturation. Until neurological structures have developed to support higher order functions, children cannot learn these abilities
5 of 100
what is physciological maturation determied by?
Physiological maturation is determined by our genes, and how we physiologically develop has been determined by the evolution of the species. This means, according to Piaget, that all children should develop at the same time in the same ways.
6 of 100
Hierarchical changes?
as changes in cognitive abilities are controlled by biological maturation, they occur in sequential stages, with higher order functioning improving as the child grows. Piaget discovered these stages mainly through observing and interviewing his child
7 of 100
Sensorimotor (0-18months)?
very quickly during this stage, the child learns object permanence (that objects exist even when they are no longer seen).
8 of 100
Pre-operational (18months-7years)?
the child engages in egocentric thinking during this stage, i.e. they cannot take another’s perspective (reason what they would see). As they are experiencing centation, they also fail to conserve, focusing on one dimension/aspect of a situation.
9 of 100
Concrete operational (7-12years)?
de-centric thinking becomes possible. The child can consider another’s perspective. They also acquire the ability to conserve, starting with number and ending with volume. However, the child cannot reason in the abstract
10 of 100
Concrete operational (7-12years)? 2
(about anything that is not within their experience or that can’t be physically manipulated), i.e. discussing concepts such as community, spirituality, and consciousness are incomprehensible to them unless related to things within their own experienc
11 of 100
examples of own experiances concrete operational?
i.e. for community they could discuss how they feel towards people in their school, and what they expect from others in their school
12 of 100
Formal operational (12+years)
abstract reasoning develops.
13 of 100
Qualitative changes?
it is not the amount of information a child can process which changes- it is the way they process information which changes.
14 of 100
Constructivist?
Piaget stated the child was a young scientist, who needed to construct his/her own representations of the world through manipulating objects and ideas for him/herself.
15 of 100
constructivist 2? the role of the teacher
The role of the teacher was merely to facilitate the child’s interaction with objects and concepts, providing stimulating environments and opportunities for enquiry or discovery learning.
16 of 100
Evidence Piaget & Inhelder (1956), aim?
To determine the age at which egocentric thinking declines, i.e. when the concrete operational stage starts.
17 of 100
Evidence Piaget & Inhelder (1956) sample?
4, 5, 6, 7 , and 8 year olds
18 of 100
Evidence Piaget & Inhelder (1956), method?
quasi experiment
19 of 100
Evidence Piaget & Inhelder (1956), procedure?
The child is shown a model of 3 mountains with different objects visible from each side. They are asked to circle the mountain to see it from all perspectives. Immediately afterwards, a doll is placed on a different side of the mountain to the child
20 of 100
Evidence Piaget & Inhelder (1956), procedure? 2
The child is given 10 black and white photographs of the 3 mountains and asked which photograph represents what the doll can see. This is repeated for different aspects of the mountain.
21 of 100
Evidence Piaget & Inhelder (1956), findings?
4-5 year olds almost always picked a photograph showing their own perspective. 6 year olds often chose a different perspective but not the correct one. 7-8year olds always selected the correct photograph representing the doll’s perspective.
22 of 100
Evidence Piaget & Inhelder (1956), conclusion?
The concrete operational stage begins around age 7 as egocentrism declines.
23 of 100
Evidence Piaget & Inhelder (1956), critique?
Piaget’s methods of testing young children’s cognitive abilities were too complex for the child to understand. A lack of understanding of what they were required to do, or poor working memory, may have confounded the children’s performance.
24 of 100
critique 2?
Therefore, Piaget’s stages may be invalid meaning any educational programme based on them would be inappropriate.
25 of 100
hughes (1975)
tested children’s egocentrism using a policeman doll task which did not require children to remember what they had previously seen of a model, and had simpler instructions. The child was shown a model of 2 intersecting walls (in a cross-shape).
26 of 100
hudges 2?
A policeman doll was placed at the end of one of the walls, and the child was given a boy doll they were asked to hide from the policeman. 90% of 4-5year olds could complete the task successfully
27 of 100
hudges 3?
, even when 2 policeman dolls were used at the end of two walls next to each other, showing many 4 year olds could even take two other perspectives into account. This suggests the concrete operational stage develops far earlier than Piaget estimated.
28 of 100
huges 4?
Piaget’s theory has been useful in education in designing a curriculum which is developmentally appropriate.
29 of 100
huges 5?
Reductionism: Piaget ignored the role of socio-cultural factors in shaping a child’s cognitive abilities and view of the world.
30 of 100
huges 6?
It supports nature and nurture because children are born with a biological drive to construct representative schema of the world but they construct these schema through manipulating their environment
31 of 100
huges 7?
It assumes children in all cultures will develop the same cognitive abilities at the same point in their biological maturation, although Piaget mainly tested on his own Swiss children, making it ethnocentric.
32 of 100
Vygotsky cultural factors?
Children’s cognitive abilities may develop differently depending on their culture, i.e. people from different cultures may reason differently.
33 of 100
Zone of proximal development?
Children can develop faster if supported by more knowledgeable others, as long as the more mature tutor models how they are solving the problem and the problem is only just beyond what the child could achieve on their own.
34 of 100
scaffolding?
Development can be accelerated by supporting a child through a task, but gradually removing support as this task is serially repeated
35 of 100
scaffoliding example?
when a child is learning to count, a teacher may first hold their finger and do the counting for them whilst touching each object; then , they would repeat the task, getting the child to count with them, then they would repeat it
36 of 100
scaffolding examples 2?
getting the child to count with them but with only the child touching each object, then they would repeat the task with only the child counting.
37 of 100
language?
The child verbalises how they are solving a problem as a way of directing thought. As they develop, this form of language is internalised as inner speech, and separated from social, verbalised language intended to communicate.
38 of 100
evidence, freund 1990?
children were asked to categorise which items of furniture belonged in which rooms, by placing them in a dolls house. Half played with the doll’s house with their mother (ZPD condition) followed by completing the task alone
39 of 100
evidence, freund 1990? 2
half completed the task alone (Piaget’s discovery learning condition). Those who had previously played with their mother completed the task better than those who completed the task alone
40 of 100
what does this support?
e knowledgeable other can accelerate cognitive development. However, the task lacks ecological validity: if a child places furniture in an inappropriate room, it may not be because they don’t understand how to categorise furniture in a real house
41 of 100
how is the task ethnocentric?
rooms may be furnished differently depending on the culture you are raised in. Finally, how the mother interacted with their child could not be standardised.
42 of 100
critique? unscientific
His theory is unscientific because it lacks falsifiability. Although researchers can test whether children show better cognitive performance after scaffolding from a more knowledgeable other, than before
43 of 100
critique 2?
Vygotsky did not clearly define what the zone of proximal development was, meaning it is difficult to use this research to support ZPD
44 of 100
critique 3? lacks usefulnes
The theory lacks usefulness because it doesn’t explain why children are motivated to learn, unlike Piaget who suggested it was a biological drive to maintain equilibrium.
45 of 100
critique 4? usefullness and reductionisum
Usefulness: it has been used in the classroom, with strategies such as scaffolding being implemented by teachers, and the use of peer mentoring schemes. * Reductionism: it ignores the role of biological maturati
46 of 100
critique 5? nurture and culture
It supports nurture as it suggests that children acquire their abilities from their culture and through interaction with more advanced others. It considers that culture may influence the way in which we cognitively develop meaning it is less ethnocen
47 of 100
key research?
Wood Bruner, & Ross (1976)
48 of 100
aim?
Wood et al. wanted to investigate if and how children of different ages responded to ‘tutoring’ when they had a problem to solve.
49 of 100
participants?
30 middle-class children from Massachusetts, aged 3-5years were used, with equal genders and equal numbers in the three years, four years and five years age group
50 of 100
research method?
Controlled observation of children’s interactions with a tutor.
51 of 100
task?
They carried out a wooden pyramid puzzle task on a one-to-one basis with the same female tutor in sessions lasting 20mins-1hr. The blocks attached using pegs and holes.
52 of 100
procedure?
The tutor worked in a standardised way with each child. She had to try to ensure that the child did as much by his or herself as possible, with some verbal instructions where needed and, only if these failed to help the child, did she intervene
53 of 100
procedure 2?
The child was first given 5mins of free play with the blocks. Then the tutor showed the child how to pair the blocks and asked the child to make more like the one she’s modelled
54 of 100
procedure 3?
If the child had worked it out on their own, she just told them to make more like the one they’d already made. The tutor provided an atmosphere of approval during the task, but was instructed not to praise the child.
55 of 100
procedure 4?
When the child stopped constructing the pyramid or got into difficulty with their construction, the tutor intervened in standardised ways
56 of 100
standerised tutor intervention? 1
If the child continued to play with the blocks, rather than constructing a pyramid, the tutor presented the paired blocks to the child again.
57 of 100
standerised tutor intervention? 2
If the child was trying to assemble blocks but had overlooked a part of how they fitted together, the tutor would again present the blocks they had paired as a model, and ask the child to compare what they had constructed with the model to see if it
58 of 100
standerised tutor intervention? 3
If the child was able to pair blocks, the tutor only pointed out errors.
59 of 100
scoring?
Event sampling was used: assisted (by tutor) and unassisted number of pairs made was recorded.
60 of 100
scoring 2?
ifthe pairs were correct it was recorded as a matched pair, and if incorrect it was recorded as a mismatched pair. How the child responded to making a mismatch was also recorded: whether they rejected it and discarded it
61 of 100
scoring 2 extra?
or whether they rejected it and took it apart, or whether they accepted it as assembled.
62 of 100
what were the interventions by the tutor recorded as?
Direct assistance o Verbal error prompt (‘does this look like my one?’) o Verbal prompt to carry on (‘Can you make some more like this?’)
63 of 100
results and conclusions?
Inter-rater reliability: Two scorers, working independently, achieved 94% agreement when observing and scoring 594 events from video-tape of the child/tutor interactions
64 of 100
observation of tutorials 1?
All age groups were able to recognise incorrectly constructed pairs, demonstrated by the fact that children of all ages tended to take apart mismatched blocks, although younger children could not reconstruct them correctly
65 of 100
observation of tutorials 2?
(the 3 year olds had a ratio of incorrect to correct pairings of 9:1). This implies that the younger children can comprehend a correctly constructed pyramid before they can produce it. This provides some support for Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Develo
66 of 100
observation of tutorials 3?
Older children did better than younger children in the tasks, producing a larger number of correct constructions in which they actually put self-made pieces of the puzzle together correctly for themselves: 75% of 5 year olds acts were unassisted
67 of 100
observation of tutorials 4?
whereas only 10% of 3 year olds were, and 50% of 4 year olds. This provides some support for a stage theory of development like Piaget’s: that children are not capable of certain cognitive functions until they have achieved biological maturation
68 of 100
observation of tutorials 5?
Success rates of intervention where the tutor modelled pairing the blocks correctly were higher than success rates of intervention where the tutor verbally explained how the pair the blocks/ errors the child had made in their pairings, for all age gr
69 of 100
what does the observation from tutorials 5 suggest?
This suggests modelling by a more knowledgeable other (supporting Vygotsky) is more effective in enhancing cognitive performance than verbal instruction
70 of 100
observation of tutorials 6?
3 year olds rejected the tutor’s assistance much more often than 5 year olds (median number of rejection was 11 per session, compared to less than 1 per session in 5 year olds). This suggests - tutoring may be ineffective -3 year olds for some tasks
71 of 100
observation of tutorials 7?
The tutor conformed to the standardized procedure least frequently with the 4 year olds (86% of the time). The majority of her ‘errors’ with the 4 year olds was due to a tendency to offer more help than was allowed by the rules.
72 of 100
observation of tutorials 8?
In this age group, the tutor is faced with a great deal of relatively unstructured behaviour from a child who initiates most of the task activity himself but often doesn’t complete the task in an easy-to-follow serial order.
73 of 100
observastions of tutorials 9?
This makes it difficult to compare the performance across the 3 groups, as there was a lack of internal reliability. It also suggests that it is difficult to train tutors in how to interact with 4 year olds
74 of 100
what does the approach have to be?
the approach has to be more individualized which again raises issues of reliability if applied in the field.
75 of 100
fuctions of tutor in effective scaffloring are 1?
Recruitment – getting the students interested in the task and to stop imaginative (free) play
76 of 100
fuctions of tutor in effective scaffloring are 2?
Reduction in degrees of freedom –breaking the task down into components so the learner can recognize whether they are carrying out that step correctly.
77 of 100
fuctions of tutor in effective scaffloring are 3?
Direction maintenance – maintaining focus on the task and giving direction so child feels confident taking the next step
78 of 100
fuctions of tutor in effective scaffloring are 4?
Marking critical features –giving feedback on what has been carried out correctly and how it could be improved.
79 of 100
fuctions of tutor in effective scaffloring are 5?
Frustration control – tutor provides supportive comments and reduces student stress
80 of 100
fuctions of tutor in effective scaffloring are 6?
Demonstration – modelling how to do the task so the learner can imitate.
81 of 100
what does wood et al say about the scaffolding process? 1
the scaffolding process works as follows: at the start if the task, the learner and tutor have different mental representations of the task; the tutor then models the task which the child can imitate without comprehending (understanding)
82 of 100
what does wood et al say about the scaffolding process? 2
the child repeats this with the tutor correcting any errors and affirming what they’ve done correctly and the child needs less feedback, the more examples they produce for themselves;
83 of 100
what does wood et al say about the scaffolding process? 3
finally, how to complete the task is internalised and the child self-regulates their completion of it, i.e. corrects their own errors and talks him/herself through the procedure.
84 of 100
application, Cognitive strategy to improve revision or learning grant?
showed that memory for meaningful material can be improved by reinstating context the material was learned in, at the retrieval (testing) stage.
85 of 100
application grant?
Participants in the silent or nosiy test/recall conditions did better on a multiple-choice and short-answer tests than participants who learned and recalled the information, from the article on psychoimmunology, in different auditory conditions
86 of 100
what does grants study suggest?
This suggests that students would remember more in exams if they revised or were taught material in silence, as exams are usually held in silence.
87 of 100
smith (1979) application? 1
showed that reimagining the environment you learned in during testing can aid retrieval as well as physically recreating the context
88 of 100
smith application? 2
Students given words to learn in a basement, when tested the next day in an upstairs room, imagining the basement, recalled 17/80 words, and participants tested in the basement again recalled 18/80 words,
89 of 100
smith application 3?
whereas those tested in the upstairs room, without being instructed to imagine the room they learned in, only recalled 12/80.
90 of 100
application, Craik and Lockhart’s Levels of processing? 1
theory suggests that information which is processed more deeply will be more easily remembered. Therefore, intermediate processing (phonemic processing by revising using auditory mnemonics
91 of 100
application, Craik and Lockhart’s Levels of processing? 2
i.e. rhymes like ‘You need to aim high with your Spear(mans) and your Chi (squared)’ is more effective than shallow processing
92 of 100
application, Craik and Lockhart’s Levels of processing? 3
but the best level of processing to enhance recall is deep processing (understanding the information), i.e. drawing your own conclusions from findings should help you remember the findings
93 of 100
craik (1975)?
) provided support for this. A list of printed words were presented to different groups of participants:
94 of 100
groups 1 and 2?
Group 1: Had to answer a structural question (Is the word written in capital letters?) SHALLOW * Group 2: Had to carry out an acoustic task (Does the word rhyme with ‘dog’?) INTERMEDIATE
95 of 100
groups 3?
Group 3: Had to carry out a semantic task (Is it the name of a living thing?) DEEP
96 of 100
craik 2?
The Deep processing group recalled the most words on the list showing that this level of processing is the most effective way of remembering information.
97 of 100
craik 3?
Deep processing allows us to form more connections with existing information scored in our schema, making retrieval easier as the info can be accessed through a greater number of pathways.
98 of 100
application miller? 1956?
found that the capacity of our working memory is limited to 7 (+/-2) chunks of information, therefore mnemonic devices such as acronyms (using the first letter of each word to create a memorable word
99 of 100
miller 1956 2?
i.e. N.O.I.R. for levels of data) maximise the short-term memory capacity by condensing a number of terms, items or concepts into a single word.
100 of 100

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Biological drive?

Back

: Piaget suggested that humans are born with a biological drive to maintain equilibrium (ensuring our mental representations- schema- about our experience of the world) to avoid cognitive dissonance- a stressor

Card 3

Front

how do we achieve biological drive?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what happens when too many instances occur?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

biological maturation?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all child resources »