Coasts

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What are the types of Soft engineering?
Beach nourishment, beach stabilisation, dune regeneration, land use management, creating marshland and coastal realignment (managed retreat)
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What are the types of Hard engineering?
Sea walls, Revetments, Gabions, riprap, Groynes, Breakwaters, earth banks, tidal barrier and tidal barrages
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What are Spring tides?
When the sun and moon are aligned with the earth there is a strong gravitational pull. This causes high high tides and low low tides which increases the tidal range. There are also increased tidal currents. They occur twice a month around a new/full
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What are neap tides?
Sun/moon are at right angles to the earth - less gravitational pull. High tide is less, low tide is higher - smaller tidal ranges. Occur when moon is at its 1st and 3rd quarter
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What does it mean if there is a high tidal range?
There is a wide zone of wave attack
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What happens when waves have friction with the sea bed?
Base of the waves slow down.The upper part of the wave plunges forward and the wave breaks onto the beach - height and steepness of wave (1:7)
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Energy of waves depends on?
The fetch, wave strength and length of time it is blowing
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What effects the rate of erosion?
Beach presence, human activity, wave steepness and breaking point, sea characterisitcs, geology and shape of coastline
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Physical causes of coastal flooding
Management of coastal systems, management of river systems, building on coastal lowland and reclamation of coastal lowland
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Human causes of coastal flooding
Tsunamis, strong onshore winds, low pressure atmosphere, high rainfall and tidal currents and surges
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Types of physical weathering?
Freeze thaw action, pressure release, biological weathering
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Types of mass movement?
Rockfall, earth flow, solifluction, soil creep
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Types of chemical weathering?
Hydrolysis, oxidation, acid rain, carbonation, hydration, solution
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are the types of Hard engineering?

Back

Sea walls, Revetments, Gabions, riprap, Groynes, Breakwaters, earth banks, tidal barrier and tidal barrages

Card 3

Front

What are Spring tides?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are neap tides?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What does it mean if there is a high tidal range?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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