coasts

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  • Created by: vanessa
  • Created on: 17-12-13 17:52
what is the definition of coasts
the area where the land meets the sea
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how are waves created
wind causes a transfer of energy which blows across the sea
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what affects the size of a wave
the speed of the wind, the fetch, and the length of time the wind has been blowing
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what is swash and backwash
swash = when a wave breaks and water rushes up the beach backwash = water from a previous wave returning to the sea under influence of gravity
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what is sub-arial
affect of weather
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what are the sub-arial processes
rock (water weakens it and mudflow occurs), rock falls, vegetation (roots grown into cracks widening), rock faces (freeze/thaw = water expands=cracks), salt crystals (oxidation occurs = rusting)
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what are the four erosion processes
abrasion, attrition, corrosion, hydraulic action
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what is abrasion
sediment is hurled at the rock face and wears it away like sandpaper
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what is attrition
rocks and pebbles rub together making then smooth
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what is corrosion
sea water is acidic so dissolves the cliff face
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what is hydraulic action
air in the face is compressed and the force of the water causes the air to 'explode'
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what is constructive and destructive waves
constructive have a strong swash and weak backwash and vice versa for destructive
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why does lulworth cove look like it does
it has a sequence of rocks with different degrees of resistant, so the porltland limestone is broken first after many years, and then the rock is eroded more rapidly inward from the mouth
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what is salt marsh formation (ad/disad)
salt marsh where areas flood and become salt marsh - creates habitats, land is lost by sea)
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what is beach nourishment (ad/disad)
sand is added to the beach so there is more energy against the waves - makes bigger beach, needs constant maintenance
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what is sea wall (ad/disad)
a wall curved to reflect waves back to sea - forms a walkway, very expensive
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what is rip rap (ad/disad)
rocks at foot of cliff that absorb energy - cheap, eyeshore
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what are sand dunes (ad,disad)
conserves habitats, can be trampled on
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what are groynes (ad/disad)
rocks built at angles to trap sediment - bigger beach created, starves beach of sediment further down
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what are the stages of headland erosion
wave cut notch, weaknesses in rock become a cave from hydraulic action, arch formed when back walls of cave fall, overhand above arch/wave cut notch falls creating stack, stack becomes stump
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what happens in cliff retreat
wave cut notch is formed, and the unsupported cliff face collapses. the wave cute platform can be seen at low tide
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explain longshore drift
swash carries material up a beach at an angle, and back down directly under influence of gravity and so on. wooden groynes are in place to accumulate sand
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what is a spit
when a coastline changes direction and longshore drift continues so a beach grows out from the coastline
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what is usually behind a spit and what forms from it
laterals are forms (wind direction changed sediment direction) and salt marshes are behind it
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what is a bar
when spits grow across a rivers land
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what is slumping
when water builds up in soil and adds weight to it, so falls down the face of the cliff at a slope
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what is a mangrove, the goods provided, and the threats
they are trees and shrubs grown in the tropical coastlines and have special salt filtering roots. goods include tourism and fishing. threats are being cleared for land and the trees used for wood
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what is a coral reef, the goods provided, and the threats
ecosystem made up of limestone found in shallow waters. goods are shelter to animals and snorkelling. threats are bleaching where corals turn white, and dynamite fishing breaks the reefs
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what is a saltmarsh, the goods provided, and the threats
there needs to be little wave action and a good source of mud. goods are golf courses and campsite. threats are some land is lost to the sea when levels rise
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what is a sand dune, the goods provided, and the threats
accumulation of sand which is blown by the wind and shaped into mounds. goods include a sea defence and tourism. threats are that they are fragile until vegetated and have lack of legal protection
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why is stud land bay a pressure coastline
over 1 million visitors per yet, 250000 people on beach in summer, sea is advancing from long shore drift
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two facts about chumbe island zanzibar
snorkeling is restricted to periods of mid tide, and reef walks are on existing trails
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two facts about was ini mangrove kenya
constructed by kenya wildlife service and visitors fee pay for local projects
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how is stud land bay being manages
200 litter bins, ropes around salt marsh, no fires allows, only three entrances
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why is erosion on holderness so rapid
geology, power of waves are strong, and no beaches
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who are affected by erosion at holderness
farmers (have to change jobs as farms are ruined), caravan owners (lose land so lose business), wildlife trust (coast is home to many species), local authority (too expensive to reserve)
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what is managed retreat
allowing the sea to take the land and stopping protection
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

how are waves created

Back

wind causes a transfer of energy which blows across the sea

Card 3

Front

what affects the size of a wave

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what is swash and backwash

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what is sub-arial

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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