Coasts key words

Littoral zone
band where tide and storms impact the coast, stretches both out to sea and onto the shore
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the rocky type & its characteristics
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Geological structure
arrangement of rocks
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Layers of sedimentary rock, used to be horizontal but have since been tilted by folding
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Bedding planes
cracks between strata, causes by gaps in time during deposition of the original sediment
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cracks running in any direction in the rock, caused by: contraction of igneous rocks as they cool/ contraction fo sediments as they dry out/ stress & pressure due to folding
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Cracks running in any direction in rock, caused when stress/pressure on rock exceeds its internal strength causing it to fracture= rocks either side of fault slip along this fault plane
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Having been titled by folding, the angle at which their strata & their bedding planes now lie
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bands of more resistant & less resistant rock run parallel to coast
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Bands of more & less-resistant rock run at right angles/perpendicular to coast
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Ridge at top of beach
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high-energy waves pick up sand & pebbles which get thrown at cliff chipping the rock away
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Hydraulic action
high-energy waves trap and compress air in cracks or just against the face of the cliff, as wave retreats air expands again- widening cracks & hammering against cliff face
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Seawater & salt spray dissolve ions in rock
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Rocks bang against one another making smaller and smaller rocks for abrasion
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large, heavy rocks= dragged along beach/seabed
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small, light rocks= bounced along beach/sea bed
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small, light= lifted & carried
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rocks dissolved by corrosion
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tolerant of salt water
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toelrant of dry conditions
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Salt marshes
areas of flat, silty sediments that accumulate around estuaries/lagoons
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Mechanical weathering
any of various weathering processes that cause physical disintegration of exposed rock without change in its chemical composition
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Biological weathering
effect that living organisms have on rocks and other inanimate objects
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Chemical weathering
Any of the various weathering processes that cause exposed rock to undergo chemical decomposition by changing the chemical and mineral composition of the rock
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Sub-aerial processes
general term for weathering & mass movement
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movement of weathered material down slope as a result of gravity
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Sediment cells
length of coastline and its associated nearshore area within the movement of coarse sediment is largely self-contained
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point of balance, same going in as out
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Negative feedback
When a change is minimised and normal levels are returned
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Positive feedback
When a change occurs and the system continues to go further away from its normal level
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human caused
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Eustatic change
sea level rises/falls
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Isostatic change
land rises/falls relative to the sea
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Valleys in upland areas are flooded to form sheltered inlets
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Dalmation coasts
land is flooded parallel to the coastline
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deep glacial valleys are flooded
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Haff coasts
concordant coastline which consists of long spits of sand and lagoons
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action to reduce impact of an event
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man-made engineered bank of land
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halophytes able to live along intertidal zones of coastlines in regions
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Hard engineering
structures built along the coast e.g sea walls
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Soft engineering
works with coastal system processes, manages erosion as opposed to preventing it
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Integrated Coastal Zone Management
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Fragmented management
managed by individual settlements
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Environmental Impact Assessment
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Coastal accretion
accumulation of sediment
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Hold the line
maintain current position of coastline- hard-engineering methods often used but soft-engineering increasingly popular
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Advance the line
extend the coastline out to sea, hard-engineering often used, soft-engineering increasingly popular
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Strategic realignment
allow coastline to restreat in a managed way= soft-engineering
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No active intervention
let nature take its course- allowing any coastal defences to deteriorate so can can erode/flood coastline
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Other cards in this set

Card 2




the rocky type & its characteristics

Card 3


Geological structure


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Card 4




Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Bedding planes


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