COASTS - Geography GSCE Revision

Coastal Landforms, Definitions, Case Study (Holderness) and Marine Processes

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  • Created by: ssawyer20
  • Created on: 30-04-16 12:17
Long Shore Drift
Shingle is moved across the beach in a zigzag pattern. Waves hit the beach at an angle and the swash carries material up the beach, while the backwash carries materials back down to the sea.
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Hard Engineering
Short term and sustainable - Stop erosion and control what happens to water and material.
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Soft Engineering
Long term and sustainable - Do not stop erosion, but control where the water goes.
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Gabion
£5,000 to £50,000 per 100m. Cheap but wire rusts easily.
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Revetment
£1,200 per metre. Absorbs wave energy while letting sediment through. Not very sturdy.
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Rock armour
£1,000 to £4,000 per metre. Absorb wave energy but look unnatural.
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Groynes
£10,000 per groyne. Prevent LSD by trapping sand and pebbles. Can be considered ugly, and can speed up eroison in other parts of the coast.
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Sea Wall
£6,000 per metre. Prevent erosion at cliff base but don't abosrb the energy, just reflect waves.
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Beach Nourishment
Sediment carried away from beach is replaced. Cheap but requires constant maintenance.
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Managed Retreat
Flooding allowed in low value places. Allows salt marshes and beaches to form. People who lose land must be compensated.
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Beaches
Found in sheltered bays between two headlands.
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Bars
Ridges of sand and other material running parallel to the coast.
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Lagoon
Water dammed up behind a bar.
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Tombolos
Ridges of material linking the mainland to an island a little way out to sea.
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Wave Cut Platforms
The cliff retreats, leaving a wave cut platform.
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Cave
Cracks in the headland are opened to form a cave.
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Arch
A cave gets eroded all the way through to become an arch.
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Stack
An arch collapses, leaving a stack.
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Stump
Waves erode a stack, wearing it down into a stump.
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Destructive Waves
Waves close together, High, steep wave front, steep beach, strong backwash, weak swash
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Constructive waves
Waves far apart, strong swash, weak backwash, breaking waves spill forward.
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Wave Pounding
Steep waves crash into cliff, causing huge shockwave.
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Corrasion/Abrasion
Cliffs broken down by small rocks and sand in water.
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Hydraulic Action
Cracks in cliff are filled with trapped air when waves crash into them, weakening the cliff.
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Attrition
Rocks and pebbles on shore are smashed together and broken down to become smoother.
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Solution/ Corrosion
Limestone, chalk and some other rocks can be broken down by acids carried in water - dissolved.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Short term and sustainable - Stop erosion and control what happens to water and material.

Back

Hard Engineering

Card 3

Front

Long term and sustainable - Do not stop erosion, but control where the water goes.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

£5,000 to £50,000 per 100m. Cheap but wire rusts easily.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

£1,200 per metre. Absorbs wave energy while letting sediment through. Not very sturdy.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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