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1. What is mechanical weathering?
Breakdown of rock without changing its chemical composition.
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2. Explain freeze-thaw weathering
Temperature alternates above and below 0 degrees. Water gets into the rock and cracks. What freezes and expands. Water thaws and contracts. Repeats widens the cracks.
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3. What is chemical weathering?
Breakdown of rock by changing its chemical composition.
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4. Explain carbonation weathering
Rainwater has carbon dioxide in it which makes it a weak cabonic acid. Carbonic acid reacts with rock that contains calcium carbonate. This dissolves the rock.
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5. What is mass movement?
When material shifts down a slope as one.
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6. Why does mass movement happen?
Force of gravity acting on a slope is greater than the force supporting it.
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7. When is mass movement more likely to happen?
The material is full of water as it acts as a lubricant.
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8. What is the different between a slide and a slump?
A slide shifts in a straight line and slumps is a shift with a rotation.
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9. What is hydraulic power?
When waves crash against rocks and compress the air in the cracks. This puts pressure on the rock. Repeating this widens the cracks and makes bits fall off.
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10.What is abrasion?
Eroded particles rub against the bank or rocks, removing small pieces.
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11. What is attrition?
When small pebbles smash into each other. This breaks into smaller particles.
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12. What is solution?
When acid in seawater dissolves away rock.
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13. What are destructive waves?
Erosional, high and steep, backwash stronger than swash and they have a high frequency.
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14. How are wave cut platforms made?
Erosion at foot of cliff, forms a wave cut notch, rock above notch becomes unstable and collapes. This is washed away and leaves a wave cut platform. This is repeated and the cliff retreats.
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15. Where do headlands and bays form?
Where erosion resistance is different.
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16. Where are headlands formed?
More resistant rock, eroded slowly.
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17. Where are bays formed?
Less resistant rock, eroded quickly.
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18. How are caves formed?
Headlands have weaknesses called cracks. Hydraulic power and abrasion widen the cracks. Repeat and caves form.....
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19. How are arches formed from cracks?
The erosion deepens the arch from both sides until it breaks through to form an arch.
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20. How does an arch form a stack?
The roof of the arch eventually collapes leaving a stack.
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21. What is transportation?
The movement of material.
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22. What is long shore drift?
Waves follow prevailing wind. Hit the coast at an angle. Swash carries material up the beach. Backwash carries material back down the beach but at a right angle back to the sea. This creates a zig zag motion of material.
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23. What are the four processes of transportation?
Traction, suspension, saltation and solution.
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24. What is traction?
Large boulders are pushed along sea bed by the force of the water.
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25. What is suspension?
Small particles are carried in the water.
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26. What is saltation?
Like traction but small particles that bounce with the force of the water.
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27. What is solution?
Soluble materials are dissolved within the water. They are carried with it.
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28. What is deposition?
The dropping of material.
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29. Where do coasts build up?
Where there is more depostition than erosion.
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30. When does the amount of material that is deposited increase?
Lots of erosion somewhere else on the coast andlots of transportation into the area.
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31. What are waves called that deposit material on the coast?
Constructive waves
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32. What are the charactoristics of constructive waves?
Low frequency, low and long, swash more powerful than backwash. Material is deposited.
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33. What coastal landforms are made by deposition?
Spits, Beaches and bars
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34. Where are beaches found?
Between high water mark and low water mark.
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35. What are beaches formed by?
Constructive waves
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36. What are the charactoristics of sand beaches?
Flat and wide as small sand particles are easily moved back down the beach by backwash.
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37. What are the charactoristics of shingle beaches?
Steep and narrow. The large pebbles/boulders are heavy and backwash cannot move them.
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38. What are splits and bars?
A spit is a beach that sticks into the sea and is connected at one end. A bar is a split that has extended across the bay and joined onto the other side.
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39. How are spits formed?
Formed by longshore drift. Across a river mouth or bay. Long shore drift transports material and it deposits it in the sea. Winds curve the spit. The area behind the spit is very sheltered and can become a mud flat or salt marsh.
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40. How are bars formed?
When a spit joins two headlands together. Bar cuts of the bay from the sea. Lagoon forms behind bar.
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41. What are caves, arches and stacks seen as on maps?
Caves and arches cannot be seen because there is rock above them Stacks look like little blobs of rock in the sea .
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42. How are cliffs and wave cut platforms shown on a map?
Cliffs are shown as little black lines. Wave cut platforms are bumpy edges (black) along the coast.
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43. How are shingle beaches and sandy beaches shown on maps?
Sand = pale yellow. Shingle = white/yellow with speckles.
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44. How are spits shown on maps?
Beach that carries on into the sea, but is attached, to land at one end. Also may be a sharp bend in the coastline.
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45. What is the cause of rising sea level?
Global warming - melting ice (storage of water that returns to the ocean) Heating oceans - causing the sea to expand (thermal expansion) - increasing volume of water.
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46. What are the economic impacts of coastal flooding?
1) Loss of tourism 2) damage and repair - repairing flood damage is expensive. 3) Loss of agricultural land - seawater has high salt content, reducing the soil fertility, crop production affected.
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47. What are the social impacts of coastal flooding?
1) Deaths 2) Water supplies affected - flood water pollute with salt or sewage. Loss of housing 4)Loss of jobs - coastal industries may close down due to damage of equiptment or buildings.
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48. What are the environmental impacts of coastal flooding?
1) Ecosystems affected - seawater has a high salt content. 2) Vegetation killed by water - force of water can uproot plants. 3) Increased erosion - large volume of fast moving water.
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49. What are the political impacts of coastal flooding?
Govenment has to make policies to reduce the impacts of flooding in the future. Building more or better flood defences or manage use of areas that may get flooded (stop people living there).
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50. What are the benefits and disadvantages of a seawall?
B - Prevents erosion and acts as a barrier. D - Creates strong backwash, erodes under the wall. Very expensive to build and maintain.
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51. What are the benefits and disadvantages of rock armour?
(Boulders piled up along the coast) B - Absorb wave energy to reduce flooding and erosion. Fairly cheap. D - Can be moved by strong waves.
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52. What are the benefits and disadvantages of groynes?
B - Create wider beaches which slow waves. Greater protection from flooding and erosion. Fairly cheap. D - Starve beaches further down the coast making them narrower. These dont protect the beach as well, leading to erosion and flooding.
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53. What are the benefits and disadvantages of beach nourishment?
(Sand and shingle from elsewhere thats added to the beach) B - Creates wider beaches which slows down waves. D - Taking material from the seabed that can kill organisms like sponges and corals. Very expensive and needs repeating.
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54. What are the benefits and disadvantages of dune regeneration?
(Creating or restoring sand dunes by either nourishment or planting vegetation to stabilise) B - Provide a barrier between the land and the sea. Wave energy absorbed and stabilisation is cheap. D - Protection area is small. Nourishment is expensive.
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55. What are the benefits and disadvantages of marsh creation?
(Planting vegetation in mud flats along the coast) B - Stabilises mud flats and reduces the speed of the waves. Creates new habitats. D - Isn't useful when the erosion is high because the marsh cna't establish itself.
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56. What are the benefits and disadvantages of managed retreat?
(Removing an existing defence and allowing the land to flood behind it) B - Land will become marshland creating new habitats. Flooding and erosion reduced behind. Fairly cheap. D - People may disagree with what land allowed to flood.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


2. Explain freeze-thaw weathering


Temperature alternates above and below 0 degrees. Water gets into the rock and cracks. What freezes and expands. Water thaws and contracts. Repeats widens the cracks.

Card 3


3. What is chemical weathering?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


4. Explain carbonation weathering


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


5. What is mass movement?


Preview of the front of card 5
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