Coastal zone

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Hydraulic action
The sheer weight and impact of water against the coastline, particularly during a storm will erode the coast. Also waves compress air in crack in the rock, forcing them apart and weakening the rock.
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Abrasion
The coast is worn down by material carried by the waves. Waves throw these particles(e.g.sand and pebbles or boulders) against the rock, rubbing away parts of the cliff
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Attrition
Materials carried by the waves bump into each other and are smoothed and broken down into smaller particles.
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Solution
This is the chemical action on rocks by sea water. The acids in the salt water slowly dissolve rocks on the coast. (e.g. limestone)
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Weathering
Weathering is the breakdown of rock at or near the surface.
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Erosion
The transport of the broken down bits of rock by wind or water.
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Mechanical weathering - freeze thaw
Most common in cold climates. When it freezes, water in cracks in the rock expands. Over time the rock widens and pieces of rock fall off. It is most effective when the temperature frequently rises above and falls below 0'C. 1.
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Mechanical weathering - Salt wedging
Most common in hot climates. When water evaporates, salt is left behind rubbing against the rock wearing it away.
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Chemical weathering
This happens when the rock's mineral composition is changed.
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Biological weathering
This is caused by plants and animals and its action speeds up mechanical or chemical weathering.
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Fetch
The distance the wave travels before hitting the cost
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Swash
The wave come towards the coast
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Backwash
The wave goes back into the sea
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Headland
A headland is an area of land that juts into the sea. More resistant rocks such as chalk and limestone, are eroded more slowly and form headlands.
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Bay
A bay is a curved coastal inlet. Less resistant rocks such as clay, are worn away more quickly by coastal erosion to form bays. Small bays may also form along fault lines in the rock, as weaker areas are eroded quicker.
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Mass movement
Is the downhill movement of material under the influence of gravity. The different type of mass movement depend on: the material involved, the amount of water in the material, the nature of the movement e.g. falls, slips or rotational slide.
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Sliding
Happens when loosened rocks and soil suddenly tumble down the slope. Block of material might slide together.
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Slumps
happen when the rock (often clay) is saturated with water and slide down a curved slip plane.
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Wave cut platform
A flat area of rock found at the base of a sea cliff.
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Beach
A build up of material, including sand and pebbles, on top of a wave cut platform.
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Spit
Is a curved beach that extends into the sea at a river mouth, or where the coast changes direction.
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Bar
Is a ridge of material deposited parallel to a coastline.
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Long shore drift
The movement of beach material along a coast
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Hard engineering
Use of structures or machinery to control natural processes.
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Sea walls
Concrete walls, designed to reflect wave energy. They also help prevent flooding.
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Groynes
wooden barriers built across a peach to trap sand and pebbles transported by longshore drit. The resulting beach absorbs wave energy.
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Rock armour
large boulders of resistant rock placed at the base of cliffs to prevent erosion, undercutting and cliff collapse.
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Soft engineering
Working with the environment to modify and/or prepare for natural processes
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Beach nourishment
beach material lost through longshore drift is replaced with material from further along the coast or with material dredged from the seabed.
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Dune regeneration
sand dunes are damaged by walkers and picnickers. Areas of sand and dunes are fenced off to allow them to re-grow naturally.
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Marsh creation (managed retreat)
In areas of low economic value the sea is allowed to erode and flood the land. Gradually, mud flats, salt marshes and beaches develop, forming natural coastal defenses.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The coast is worn down by material carried by the waves. Waves throw these particles(e.g.sand and pebbles or boulders) against the rock, rubbing away parts of the cliff

Back

Abrasion

Card 3

Front

Materials carried by the waves bump into each other and are smoothed and broken down into smaller particles.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

This is the chemical action on rocks by sea water. The acids in the salt water slowly dissolve rocks on the coast. (e.g. limestone)

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Weathering is the breakdown of rock at or near the surface.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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