Coastal processes

HideShow resource information
When a wave breaks, water is washed up the beach
1 of 22
Is where the water runs back down the beach
2 of 22
A recess or INLET in the SHORE of a SEA or lake between two capes or HEADLANDS, not as large as a GULF but larger than a COVE.
3 of 22
Longshore drift
Continual swash and backwash transports material sideways along the coast.
4 of 22
When the sea loses energy, it drops the sand, rock particles and pebbles it has been carrying. Deposition happens when the swash is stronger than the backwash.
5 of 22
his leaves a section of land jutting out into the sea called a headland.
6 of 22
The areas where the soft rock has eroded away, next to the headland, are called bays.
7 of 22
occur when waves force their way into cracks in the cliff face. The water contains sand and other materials that grind away at the rock until the cracks become a cave. Hydraulic action is the predominant process.
8 of 22
If the cave is formed in a headland, it may eventually break through to the other side forming an arch.
9 of 22
Stacks and Stumps
The stack will be attacked at the base in the same way that a wave-cut notch is formed. This weakens the structure and it will eventually collapse to form a stump.
10 of 22
A spit is an extended stretch of beach material that projects out to sea and is joined to the mainland at one end.
11 of 22
Advantages- Sea wall
Protects the base of cliffs, land and buildings against erosion. Can prevent coastal flooding in some areas.
12 of 22
Disadvantages- Sea wall
Expensive to build. Curved sea walls reflect the energy of the waves back to the sea. This means that the waves remain powerful. Over time the wall may begin to erode. The cost of maintenance is high.
13 of 22
Advantages- Groynes
Prevents the movement of beach material along the coast by longshore drift. Allows the build up of a beach. Beaches are a natural defence against erosion and an attraction for tourists.
14 of 22
Disadvantages- Groynes
Can be seen as unattractive. Costly to build and maintain.
15 of 22
Advantages- Rock armour or boulder barries
Absorb the energy of waves. Allows the build up of a beach.
16 of 22
Disadvantages- Rock armour or boulder barries
Can be expensive to obtain and transport the boulders.
17 of 22
Advantages- Beach management
This replaces beach or cliff material that has been removed by erosion or longshore drift. The main advantage is that beaches are a natural defence against erosion and coastal flooding. Beaches also attract tourists.
18 of 22
Disadvantages- Beach management
It is a relatively inexpensive option but requires constant maintenance to replace the beach material as it is washed away.
19 of 22
Advantage- Managed retreat
Areas of the coast are allowed to erode and flood naturally. Usually this will be areas considered to be of low value. The advantages are that it encourages the development of beaches (a natural defence) and salt marshes (important for the environmen
20 of 22
Disadvantages- Managed retreat
Managed retreat is a cheap option, but people will need to be compensated for loss of buildings and farmland.
21 of 22
the weather conditions prevailing in an area in general or over a long period.
22 of 22

Other cards in this set

Card 2




Is where the water runs back down the beach

Card 3




Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Longshore drift


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5




Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards


No comments have yet been made

Similar Geography resources:

See all Geography resources »See all Coastal zones resources »