Coastal Zone

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  • Created by: Liam1909
  • Created on: 21-05-16 16:43
What are the four coastal erosion processes?
Hydraulic action (air compressed by water), Abrasion (rocks thrown at cliff), Attrition (rocks rub together into smaller pieces) and Solution (rock type of cliff dissolved into water)
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What does porous mean?
When water is able to absorb water through small holes (pores), draining the water through like a sponge
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What does impermeable mean?
Where rocks can't absorb water such as clay
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What does saturated mean?
Where the rock or soil cannot absorb anymore water
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What does infiltration mean?
The process when water soaks into and passes through porous material
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What is free-thaw weathering?
When freezing occurs and the water in the cracks expand, opening the cracks up further and so weakening the cliff
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What is the swash?
Is the water which is washed up the beach by the waves
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What is the backwash?
Is the water which washes back down the beach due to gravity
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What is the fetch?
Is the distance a wave has travelled
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What are the features of a constructive wave?
Long and flat (occurring in calm conditions) and have a strong SWASH to deposit material up the beach
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What are the features of a destructive wave?
Tall and short in length (occurring in stormy conditions) and have a strong BACKWASH to take away material from the beach
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What is longshore drift?
The movement of material across the beach by the waves at an angle depending on the prevailing wind
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What are the four processes of transportation?
Traction (boulders are rolled along the sea bed), Saltation (stones bounced along the sea bed), Solution (minerals are dissolved in the water) and Suspension (small particles carried along by the wave)
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What are the landforms along a coast?
Headlands, bays, cliffs, wave-cut platforms, caves, arches, stacks
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What are spits?
Where longshore drift has continued out into the sea
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What are bars?
Where spits have continued across the sea and cut off a piece of water, forming a lagoon
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What are the three types of hard engineering and their costs?
A sea wall (£6 million per km), groynes (£10,000 per 200m), and rock armour (£1,000-£4,000 per metre)
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What are the four types of soft engineering and their costs?
Beach nourishment (£3,000 per metre), Dune regeneration (£2,000 per metre), and managed retreat (£5,000-£10,000 per hectare)
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Card 2

Front

What does porous mean?

Back

When water is able to absorb water through small holes (pores), draining the water through like a sponge

Card 3

Front

What does impermeable mean?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What does saturated mean?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What does infiltration mean?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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