Coastal Landscapes and Change Key Words (from Hodder Education revision guide)

LITTORAL ZONE
The wider coastal zone including coastal land areas and shallow parts of the sea just offshore
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SUBAERIAL PROCESSES
Weathering, mass movement and surface run off erosion
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ACCRETION
Deposition of sediment at a coast that expands the area of land
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WAVE REFRACTION
Process causing wave crests to become curved as they approach a coastline
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ANTICLINES AND SYNCLINES
Types of geological fold caused by tectonic compression. Anticlines form crests and synclines form troughs
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FAULTS
Major fractures in rocks produced by tectonic forces and involve displacement of rocks on either side of the fault line
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MICRO-FEATURES
Small-scale coastal features (e.g. caves and wave cut notches) which form part of the cliff profile
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UNCONSOLIDATED MATERIAL
Sediment that has not been cemented to form solid rock, a process known as lithification
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CLASTIC ROCKS
Sediment particles are cemented together
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CRYSTALLINE ROCKS
Made up of interlocking mineral crystals (more erosion-resistant)
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PORE WATER PRESSURE
Internal force within cliffs exerted by the mass of groundwater within permeable rocks
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PLANT SUCCESSION
The changing structure of a plant community over time as an area of bare sediment is colonised
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FETCH
The uninterrupted distance across water over which a wind blows, the distance waves have to grow in size
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BEACH MORPHOLOGY
Shape of a beach (width, slops, features, sediment type)
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LONGSHORE DRIFT
The net transport of sediment along a beach as a result of swash and backwash
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WEATHERING
The in situ breakdown of rocks by chemical, mechanical or biological agents. It does not involve any movement
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LITHOLOGY
The technical term for different rock types
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MASS MOVEMENT
The downslope movement of rock and soil. An umbrella term for specific movements e.g. landslide and rockfall
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POST-GLACIAL ADJUSTMENT
The uplift experienced by land following the removal of the weight of ice sheets
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RIAS
Drowned river valleys in unglaciated areas, caused by sea level rise flooding the river valley, making it much wider than would be expected based on the river flowing into it
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BARRIER ISLANDS
Offshore sediment bars, usually sand-dune covered but (unlike spits) are not attached to the coast (may be formed as land behind floods)
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THERMAL EXPANSION
The main cause of sea level rise, the volume of ocean water increases as global temperatures rise
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DREDGING
Scooping or sucking sediment up form the sea or river bed
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DISSIPATION
How the energy of waves is decreased by friction with beach material during wave swash up the beach. A wide beach slows down waves and absorbs their energy, so when they break most energy has gone
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STORM SURGE
A localised, short-term rise in sea level caused by air pressure change
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AMENITY VALUE
Value in cultural, human wellbeing and economic terms of an attractive environment that people enjoy using
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ENVIRONMENTAL REFUGEES
Communities forced to leave their homes due to natural processes (both sudden and gradual)
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SUSTAINABLE COASTAL MANAGEMENT
Managing the wider coastal zone in terms of people and their economic livelihoods, social and cultural wellbeing, safey from coastal hazards, as well as minimising environmental and ecological impacts
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INTEGRATED COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT (ICZM)
Coastal management planning over th along term, involving all stakeholders, working with natural processes and using 'adaptive management' (changing plans as threats change)
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SEDIMENT / LITTORAL CELLS
Contain sediment sources, transport paths and sinks. Each cell is isolated from the next and can be managed as a holistic unit
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Weathering, mass movement and surface run off erosion

Back

SUBAERIAL PROCESSES

Card 3

Front

Deposition of sediment at a coast that expands the area of land

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Process causing wave crests to become curved as they approach a coastline

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Types of geological fold caused by tectonic compression. Anticlines form crests and synclines form troughs

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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