COASTAL LANDSCAPE AND CHANGE

  • Created by: PendersL
  • Created on: 20-05-18 18:28
COASTAL LANDSCAPES AND CHANGE
COASTAL LANDSCAPES AND CHANGE
1 of 104
WHAT IS THE LITTORAL ZONE?
THE LITTORAL ZONE IS THE AREA WHERE LIGHT CAN PENETRATE THE SURFACE AND REACH THE SEA FLOOR.
2 of 104
WHAT IS THE INSHORE?
THIS IS WHERE THE IT BECOMES SHALLOWER MAKING THE WAVES BREAK AND MOST OF THE HUMAN ACTIVITY IS.
3 of 104
WHT IS THE OFFSHORE?
THE BACKSHORE IS THE DEEPEST PART OF THE LITTORALA ZONE AND WAVES TRAVEL THROUGH WITH NO EFFECT.
4 of 104
WHAT IS THE FORESHORE?
THE WAVE PROCESSES ARE CONCENTRATED HERE, BETWEEN HIGH AND LOW TIDE.
5 of 104
WHAT IS THE BACKSHORE?
THIS IS ONLY UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF WATER IN STORMS AND HIGH PRESSURE.
6 of 104
WHAT IS A CONCORDANT COASTLINE?
THIS IS WHERE THE ROCK WHICH MAKES UP THE COAST RUNS PARALLEL TO THE SEA. THIS CREATES FEATURES SUCH AS A DALMATION COASTLINE, HAFFS AND COVES.
7 of 104
WHAT IS A DISCORDANT COASTLINE?
THE ROCK WHICH MAKES UP THE CLIFFS RUN IN BANDS PERPENDICULAR TO THE SEA. THIS CREATES THING SUCH AS HEADLANDS AND BAYS
8 of 104
WHAT IS A CONSTRUCTIVE WAVE?
A CONSTRUCTIVE WAVE IS WHEN THE WAVE HAS A LOW HEIGHT, LONG LENGTH AND LOW FREQUENCY. THE SWASH IS STRONGER THAN THE BACKWASH. BUILDS THE BEACH UP.
9 of 104
WHAT IS A DESTRUCTIVE WAVE?
A DESTRUCTIVE WAVE HAS A TALL WAVE HEIGHT, SMALL LENGTH, HIGH FREQUENCY. IT HAS A STONGER BACKWASH THAN SWASH. THIS MEANS IT TAKES AWAY THE SEDIMENT FROM THE BEACH.
10 of 104
HOW DOES A WAVE FORM?
A WAVE FORMS WHEN THE WIND BLOWS OVER THE WATER.
11 of 104
WHAT IS A WAVE?
A WAVE IS WHEN THE ENERGY MOVES IN CIRCULAR MOTIONS THROUGH THE WATER. THE WATER MOVES UO AND DOWN.
12 of 104
WHAT DOES THE SIZE OF A WAVE DEPEND ON?
THE SIZE OF A WAVE DEPENDS ON THE STRENGTH OF THE WIND, DURATION OF THE WAVE, THE LENGTH OF THE FETCH AND THE THE DEPTH OF THE WAVE.
13 of 104
WHAT IS WAVE REFRACTION?
WAVE REFRACTION IS WHEN THE HEADLANDS ARE ERODED MORE THAN THE BAYS. THIS IS BECAUSE THE HEADLANDS ARE HIGHER AND THIS HAPPENS TO MAKE THE COASTLINE SMOOTHER.
14 of 104
WHAT TYPES OF COASTLINES ARE THERE?
THE TYPES OF COASTLINES ARE ROCKY, CLIFFED, SANDY AND ESTURAINE.
15 of 104
WHAT IS A SANDY COAST?
A SANDY COAST IS WHEN THE TRANSITION BETWEEN THE LAND AND THE SEA IS GRADUAL?
16 of 104
WHAT IS A ESTURAINE COAST?
IT IS WHEN THERE IS A PARTIALLY ENCLOSED COASTAL BODY, NORMALLY HAS SPITS, SALT MARSHES AS WELL AS OTHER FEATURES.
17 of 104
WHAT IS A CLIFFED COAST?
A CLIFFED COAST IS WHEN THE TRANSITION BETWEEN LAND AND SEA IS ABRUPT.
18 of 104
WHAT IS A ROCKY COAST?
A ROCKY COAST IS WHEN THE COAST IS MADE UP OF RESISTANT MATERIAL
19 of 104
HOW ARE COASTS CLASSIFIED?
COASTS ARE CLASSIFIED BY IF THEY ARE PRIMARY OR SECONDARY, SEA LEVEL CHANGE, TIDAL RANGE AND WAVE ENERGY.
20 of 104
WHAT IS A PRIMARY COAST?
A PRIMARY COAST IS A COAST WHICH IS CREATED FROM A TERRESTRIAL SOURCE. NEW LAND IS CREATED.
21 of 104
WHAT IS A SECONDARY COAST?
A SECONDARY COAST IS WHEN IT IS CREATED BY EROSION AND DEPOSITION.
22 of 104
WHAT ARE THE THREE TYPES OF TIDAL RANGE?
1)MICTROTIDAL 2)MACROTIDAL 3)MESOTIDAL
23 of 104
WHAT ARE THE TYPES OF WAVE ENERGY AT THE COAST?
HIGH ENERGY AND LOW ENERGY.
24 of 104
WHAT IS A LOW ENERGY COASTLINE?
A LOW ENERGY COASTLINE IS WHEN THE RATE OF DEPOSITION IS GREATER THAN THE RATE OF ERSOION.
25 of 104
WHAT IS A HIGH ENERGY COASTLINE?
A HIGH ENERGY COASTLINE IS WHEN THE RATE OF ERSOION IS GREATER THAN THE RATE OF DEPOSITION.
26 of 104
NAME THE METHODS THAT SEDIMENT IS TRANSPORTED
SEDIMENT IS TRANSPORTED BY TRACTION, SALTATION, SOLUTION AND SUSPENSION?
27 of 104
WHAT IS TRACTION?
TRACTION IS WHEN LARGE SEDIMENT PARTICLES ARE ROLLED ACROSS THE SEA FLOOR.
28 of 104
WHAT IS SALTATION?
SALTATION IS WHERE THE SEDIMENT IS PICKED UP IN HIGH ENERGY AND THEN DROPPED IN LOW ENERGY.
29 of 104
WHAT IS SOLUTION?
WHERE DISOLVED SEDIMENT IS TRANSPORTED ALONG THE COAST.
30 of 104
WHAT IS THE SUSPENSION?
SUSPENSION IS WHEN THE SEDIMENT IS CARRIED WITHIN THE WATER COLUMN OFF THE SEA FLOOR.
31 of 104
NAME THE THREE METHODS OF DEPOSITION
FLOCCULATION, LONSHORE DRIFT AND GRAVITY SETTLING.
32 of 104
WHAT IS LONGSHORE DRIFT?
LONGSHORE DRIFT IS WHERE THE SEDIMENT MOVES ALONG THE COAST AT AN ANGLE AND PULLED BACK BY THE BACKWASH PERPENDICULAR TO THE SEA AND LAND. WHEN THE SEDIMENT CAN NO LONGER BE CARRIED IT IS DEPOSITED.
33 of 104
WHAT IS GRAVITY SETTLING?
GRAVITY SETTLING OCCURS WHEN THERE ISA LOSS OF ENERGY MEANINF THE SEDIMENT CAN LONGER BE CARRIED.
34 of 104
WHAT IS FLOCCULATION?
FLOCCULATION IS WHEN PARTICLES STICK TOGETH ANS THEN SETTLE AT THE BOTTOM, AS THE PARTICLES ARE HEAVIER AND CAN NO LONGER BE CARRIED SO SETTLE AT THE BOTTOM.
35 of 104
WHAT VEGETATION HELPS STABILIE THE COASTLINE?
SALT MARSHES AND SAND DUNES>
36 of 104
WHAT IS A SALT MARSH?
SALT MARSHES ARE AREAS OF SILTY SEDIMENT THAT ACCUMULATE AROUND THE ESTURARIES OR LAGOONS.
37 of 104
HOW ARE SAND DUNES FORMED / WHAT IS THE SAND DUNE SUCCESSION?
SAND DUNE SUCCESSION IS EMBRYO DUNE, FORE DUNES, YELLOW DUNES, GREY DUNES, DUNE SLACK AND TALLEST DUNE.
38 of 104
WHAT ARE THE THREE TYPES OF WEATHERING?
1)BIOLOGICAL 2)CHEMICAL 3)MECHANICAL
39 of 104
WHAT IS BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING?
BIOLOGICAL WEATHERING IS WHERE THE PLANTS, ANIMALS, RUNNING WATER AND MARINE ORGANISMS CAUSE THE CLIFF, SEDIMENT TO BREAK UP.
40 of 104
WHAT IS CHEMICAL WEATHERING?
WHEN THERE IS A CHEMICAL REACTION. CARBONATION OR OXIDATION OR HYDROLYSIS.
41 of 104
WHAT IS MECHANICAL WEATHERING?
MECHANICAL WEATHERING IS WHERE THERE IS A BREAK DOWN IN THE ROCK. THIS COULD BE THROUGH FREEZE THAW AND SALT CRYSTALISATION. EXERTION OF THE ROCK DUE TO A PHYSICAL FORCE.
42 of 104
NAME THE TWO TYPES OF SEA LEVEL CHANGE
1)EUSTATIC 2)ISOSTATIC?
43 of 104
WHAT IS ISOSTATIC SEA LEVEL CHANGE?
ISOSTATIC SEA LEVEL CHANGE IS WHEN THERE IS A CHANGE IN THE SEA LEVEL IN RELATION TO THE LAND. THE LAND MOVES UP AND DOWN. AS A RESULT OF ACCRETION OR GLACIAL ADJUSTMENT
44 of 104
WHAT IS ACCRETION?
ACCRETION IS WHEN MATEREIAL IS ADDED TO THE COASTLINE CAUSING THE SEA LEVEL TO DROP.
45 of 104
WHAT IS GLACIAL ADJUSTMENT?
GLACIAL ADJUSTMENT IS WHEN THE ICE WEIGHS DOWN THE LAND WHICH CAUSES ONE SIDE OF THE LAND TO GO DOWN AND THE OTHER SIDE TO GO UP. HOWEVER WHEN THE ICE MELTS THIS START TO GO BACK TO HOW IT WAS BEFORE, CHANGING THE HEIGHT OF THE LAND.
46 of 104
WHAT IS EUSTATIC SEA LEVEL CHANGE?
EUSTATIC SEA LEVEL CHANGE IS A CHANGE IN THE GLOBAL SEA LEVEL. THIS IS CAUSED BY ICE FORMATION AND ICE MELTING.
47 of 104
WHAT IS ICE FORMATION?
ICE FORMATION IS WHEN THE WATER EVAPORATES. IT THEN CONDENSES AND FALLS AS SNOW/ICE THIS IS STORED AS ICE CAUSING A FALL IN SEA LEVEL.
48 of 104
WHAT IS ICE MELTING?
ICE MELTING IS WHEN THE ICE MELTS DUE TO CLIMATE CHANGE/INCREASE IN TEMPERATURE. THIS CAUSES THE SEA LEVEL TO INCREASE.
49 of 104
NAME THE COASTAL FORMATIONS FORMED BY A CHANGE IN SEA LEVEL
FJORDS, DALMATION COASTS, RAISED BEACH AND RIAS
50 of 104
HOW IS A FJORD FORMED?
A FJORD IS FORMED WHEN A GLACIAL TROUGH ARE FLOODED BY A RISE IN SEA LEVEL.
51 of 104
HOW IS A DALMATION COAST FORMED?
A DALMATION COAST IS FORMED WHEN ROCKS HAVE BEEN CRUMPLED BY TECTONIC ACTIVITY AND THE SEA LEVEL RISES FLOODING THE SYNCLINES AND THE ANTICLINES STAY ABOVE THE WATER LEVEL.
52 of 104
HOW IS A RAISED BEACH FORMED?
A RAISED BEAC IS FORMED WHEN A BEACH FORMS NEXT TO A CLIFF AND THE SEA LEVEL FALLS CREATING THE BEACH TO BE RAISED.
53 of 104
HOW IS A RIA FORMED?
A RIA IS FORMED BY DROWNED RIVER VALLEY WHERE SEA LEVEL HAS RISEN FLOODING THE RIVER PLAIN.
54 of 104
NAME THE FOUR TYPES OF EROSION
1)HYDRAULIC ACTION 2)ABRASION 3)ATTRITION 4)CORROSION
55 of 104
WHAT IS HYDRAULIC ACTION?
HYDRAULIC ACTION IS WHEN AIR BUBBLES ARE FORCED INTO THE CRACKS IN THE ROCK. THE COMPRESSES BUBBLES OF AIR ARE FORCED IN BY THE WAVE. WHEN THE WAVE MOVES THE PRESSURE IS RELEASED AND THE BUBBLES EXPAND AND POP. THIS CREATES THE CRACK TO BE BIGGER.
56 of 104
WHAT IS ABRASION?
ABRASION IS WHEN SEDIMENT IS THROWN AT THE CLIFF FACE SMOOTHING IT. THIS THEN ERODES THE CLIFF FACE.
57 of 104
WHAT IS ATTRITION?
ATTRITION IS WHEN ALREADY ERODED MATERIAL IS MADE SMOOTHER BY MALL FRAGMENTS SLOWLY BEING CHIPPED OFF IT.
58 of 104
WHAT IS CORROSION?
CORROSION IS WHEN ROCKS ARE DISOLVED BY WEAK ACID.
59 of 104
NAME THE METHODS COATS ARE MANAGED
ENGENERING STRATERGIES AND ICZM
60 of 104
NAME THE TWO TYPES OF ENGENERING METHODS USED AT THE COAST
1)SOFT ENGENERING 2)HARD ENGENERING
61 of 104
WHAT IS SOFT ENGENERING?
SOFT ENERGENERING IS USING NATURAL MATERIALS TO BUILD UP AND PROTECT THE COAST LINE.
62 of 104
NAME THE SOFT ENGENERING METHODS
BEACH NOURISHMENT, MARSH CREATION, CLIFF REGRADING, CLIFF DRAINAGE AND DUNE STABILISATION.
63 of 104
WHAT IS BEACH NOURISHMENT?
BEACH NOURISHMENT IS ADDING EXTRA SEDIMENT TO THE BEACH TO MAKE IT BIGGER.
64 of 104
WHAT IS MARSH CREATION?
MARSH CREATION IS ALLOWING AN AREA TO FLOOD AND IS A FORM OF MANAGED RETREAT.
65 of 104
WHAT IS CLIFF DRAINAGE?
CLIFF DRAINAGE IS WHEN THE AMOUNT OF WATER IN THE CLIFF IS REDUCED.
66 of 104
WHAT IS CLIFF REGRADING?
CLIFF REGRADING IS WHEN THE ANGLE IS REDUCED IN THE CLIFF.
67 of 104
WHAT IS DUNE STABILISATION?
DUNE STABILISATION IS WHEN SPECIES OF PLANT, SUCH AS MARRAM GRASS, ARE PLANTED TO STABILISE THE DUNES.
68 of 104
WHAT IS HARD ENEGENERING?
HARD ENGENERING IS WHEN PHYSICAL BARRIERS ARE USED TO PROTECT THE COASTLINE FROM EROSION.
69 of 104
NAME THE HARD ENGENERING METHODS
THE HARD ENGENERING METHODS ARE GRYONES, SEAWALL, GABIONS, ROCK ARMOUR AND OFFSHORE BREAKWATER.
70 of 104
WHAT ARE GRYONES?
GRYONES ARE WOODEN OR ROCK STRUCTURES WHICH RUN PERPENDICULAR TO THE SEA WHICH TRAPS SEDIMENT FROM BUILDING UP THE BEACH.
71 of 104
WHAT IS A SEAWALL?
A SEAWALL IS A CONCRETE WALL BUILT AT THE BACK OF THE BEACH OR FOOT OF A CLIFF WHICH ABSORBS AND REFLECTS/RERACTS THE ENERGY FROM THE WAVE.
72 of 104
WHAT IS A GABION?
A GABIOIN IS A WOODEN STRUCTURE WITH ROCKS IN IT WHICH ABSORBS THE WAVE ENERGY.
73 of 104
WHAT IS ROCK ARMOUR?
ROCK ARMOUR IS WHEN ROCKS ARE PLACED AT THE FOOT OF A CLIFF AND ABSORB SOME OF THE WAVE ENERGY.
74 of 104
WHAT IS AN OFFSHORE BREAKWATER?
AN OFFSHORE BREAK WATER IS A PARTIALLY SUBMERGED ROCK BARRIER WHICH BREAKS THE WAVE EARLIER REDUCING THE MAOUNT OF ENERGY.
75 of 104
WHAT DOES THE ICZM STAND FOR?
INTERGRATED COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT.
76 of 104
WHAT IS THE ICZM?
THE ICZM IS WHERE THE WHOLE SECTION OF THE COAST IS MANAGE RATHER THAN THE INDIVUAL PARTS.
77 of 104
HOW DOES THE ICZM WORK?
IT FOLLOWS HOLD THE LINE, ADVANCE THE LINE, MANAGED RETREAT AND NO ACTIVE INTERVENTION SCHEMES ALONG THE COASTLINE IN THE RELEVANT PLACES TO MANAGE THE WHOLE SECTION OF COAST.
78 of 104
WHAT IS HOLD THE LINE?
HOLD THE LINE IS MAINTAINING THE AREA OF LAND KEEPING IT TO THE SAME LEVEL.
79 of 104
WHAT IS ADVANCE THE LINE?
ADVANCE THE LINE IS INCREASING THE AREA OF THE LAND AND PROTECTING MORE LAND.
80 of 104
WHAT IS MANAGED RETREAT?
MANAGED RETREAT IS FLOODING AREAS CREATING SALT MARSHES AND OTHER FORMATIONS.
81 of 104
WHAT IS NO ACTIVE INTERVENTION?
NO ACTIVE INTERVENTION IS ALLOWING NATURE TO WORK.
82 of 104
WHAT IS MASS MOVEMENT?
MASS MOVEMENT IS WHEN LARGE AREAS OF LAND/CLIFF SLIP AND MOVE DOWN SLOPE. THUS IS DETERMIND BY THE ANGLE OF THE SLOPE OR CLIFF AND ROCK TYPE AND STRUCTURE.
83 of 104
WHAT ARE THE FORMS OF MASS MOVEMENT?
THESE ARE SOIL CREEPS, ROCK FALLS, EARTHFLOWS/MUDFLOWS AND ROCK SLIDE.
84 of 104
WHAT IS ROCK SLIDE?
ROCK SLIDE IS WHEN THE TOP LAYER OF ROCK IS FROZEN AND SLIPS DOWN THE UNFROZEN ROCK UNDERNEATH.
85 of 104
WHAT ARE MUDFLOWS/EARTHFLOWS?
MUDFLOWS/EARTHFLOWS ARE WHEN UNCONSOLIDATED MATERIAL IN THE CLIFF FALLS AND SLIDES DOWN THE CLIFF.
86 of 104
WHAT IS SOIL CREEP?
SOIL CREEP IS WHEN THE SOIL IN THE CLIFF MOVES AND SLIDES DOWN THE CLIFF.
87 of 104
WHAT IS ROCK FALL?
ROCK FALL IS WHEN LARGE ROCKS FALL FROM THE CLIFF WHEN IT HAS BEEN ERODED.
88 of 104
NAME THE EROSIONAL LANDFORMS
MICRO FEATURES, BLOW HOLE, WAVE CUT NOTCH/WAVE CUT PLATFORM
89 of 104
NAME THE MICRO FEATURES
CAVE, ARCH, STACK STUMP
90 of 104
HOW ARE THE MICRO FEATURES FORMED?
MICRO FEATURES ARE FORMED BY A CRACK BEING ERODED INTO A CAVE. WHICH IS THEN ERODED INTO AN ARCH. WHICH IS THEN ERODED INTO A STACK, WHICH IS THEN ERODED INTO A STUMP.
91 of 104
HOW IS A BLOW HOLE FORMED?
A BLOW HOLE IS FORMED WHEN A ROCK/CLIFF HAS BEEN SLOWLY ERODED THROUGH THE ROCK TO THE TOP CREATING A SMALL GAP.
92 of 104
HOW IS A WAVE CUT NOTCH/ WAVE CUT PLATFORM FORMED?
IT IS A LEDGE WHICH IS FORMED WHEN THE FOOT OF A CLIFF HAS BEEN ERODED. THIS IS NORMALLY JUST ABOVE THE HIGH TIDE MARK.
93 of 104
NAME THE DEPOSITIONAL LANDFORMS
OFFSHORE BAR, TOMOBOLO, SPIT, BAR
94 of 104
HOW IS A SPIT CREATED?
A SPIT IS CREATED WHEN THE SEDIMENT IS DEPOSITED FROM LAND GOING INTO THE SEA. IF IT CURVES AT THE ND IT IS A RECURVED SPIT AND IF THERE IS A SPIT FROM EITHER END OF THE LAND IT IS A DOUBLE SPIT.
95 of 104
HOW IS A BAR FORMED?
A BAR IS FORMED WHEN A SPIT CONNECTS TWO AREAS OF LAND TOGETHER CREATING A LAGOON.
96 of 104
HOW IS A TOMBOLO FORMED?
A TOMBOLO IS WHEN A BEACH FORMS BETWEEN A SMALL ISLAND AND THE MAINLAND.
97 of 104
HOW IS AN OFFSHORE BAR FORMED?
AN OFFSHORE BAR IS FORMED WHEN RIDGES IF SAND/SHINGLE/SEDIMENT BUILD UP.
98 of 104
WHAT IS COASTAL FLOODING?
IS WHEN AN AREA BY THE COASTLINE FLOODS.
99 of 104
HOW IS AN AREA AT RISK FROM COASTAL FLOODING?
COASTAL FLOODING IS AT AN INCREASED RISK IF THE HEIGHT ABOVE THE SEA LEVEL IS LOW OR LOTS OF MAJOR RIVERS FLOW THROUGH THE AREA. CAN ALSO BE CAUSED BY HUMAN ACTION ACTION SUCH AS REMOVING VEGEATION.
100 of 104
WHAT IS THE CASE STUDY FOR COASTAL FLOODING?
THE CASE STUDY IS BANGLADESH. REMOVED MANGROVES WHICH INCREADES RISK AS NOTHING WAS THERE TO TAKE AWAY THE ENERGY FROM THE WATER.
101 of 104
WHAT IS THE ICZM CASE STUDY?
THE ICZM CASE STUDY IS THE HOLDERNESS COAST. SOME AREAS SUCH AS BRIDLINGTON AND MAPPLETON HAVE BEEN PROTECTED WHILST OTHER AREAS SUCH AS SPURN POING HAVE BEEN LEFT ALONE.
102 of 104
WHAT IS THE SOFT ENGENERING CASE STUDY?
SAND DUNE STABILISATION IS AT FORMBY BEACH WITH THE PLANTING OF CHRISTMAS TREES TO CREATE A BUILD UP OF SAND
103 of 104
WHAT IS THE HARD ENGENERING CASE STUDY?
THE SEA WALL AT BLACKPOOL. USED AS A PROMANADE TO BLEND IN WITH THE AREA AS WELL. IT IS ALSO USED AS AN ATTRACTION TO TEH AREA.
104 of 104

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

WHAT IS THE LITTORAL ZONE?

Back

THE LITTORAL ZONE IS THE AREA WHERE LIGHT CAN PENETRATE THE SURFACE AND REACH THE SEA FLOOR.

Card 3

Front

WHAT IS THE INSHORE?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

WHT IS THE OFFSHORE?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

WHAT IS THE FORESHORE?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Geography resources:

See all Geography resources »See all COASTAL LANDSCAPE AND CHANGE resources »