Coastal Landforms

Headlands
A headland consists of 'bands' of less and more resistant rock which alternate next to each other along the coastline. They stick out into the sea and have steep sides
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Bays
A bay is an area of water bordered by land on 3 sides
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How are Headlands and Bays formed?
Headlands form when the sea attacks a section of the coast and the bands of soft rock erodes, leaving the resistant rock jutting out into the sea. Where the soft rock has eroded is where the bays are formed.
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Cliffs and Shore Platforms
Cliffs are high rocks that are seen at the edge of coastlines, normally made of chalk.
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How are Cliffs formed?
Undercutting by wave action leads to rockfall, At the base of the cliff. a gently sloping shore platform is cut into the solid rock.
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How are Caves, Arches, Stacks and Stumps formed?
Cracks form in rocks due to hydraulic action and abrsaion which eventually forms into a cave. As the cave becomes larger, it breaks through the headland, forming an arch - the arch is eroded and collapses which leaves a tall rock stump.
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Geos
A geo is a narrow steep sided inlet
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How are Geos formed?
Geos are formed from hydraulic action forcing air and water into the joints and faults of a coastline
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Blowholes
A blowhole is a vertical shaft that reaches the cliff top
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How are Blowholes formed?
A blowhole is formed when part of the roof of a tunnel-like cave collapses along a master
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Tombolos
A tombolo is a spit that is joined onto an old island to form a tombolo
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How are Tombolos formed?
Tombolos are formed through the process of longshore drift. A spit is formed and continues to grow until it reaches an island, forming a link with the mainland, just like bridges.
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Spits
A spit is a long, narrow beach of sand or shingle that is attached to the land at one end and extends across a bay or estuary in a coastline.
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How are Spits formed?
Spits are formed when longshore drift occurs and a salt marsh is created in a low enery zone. The spit stops growing due to a river outlet
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Salt Marsh
Salt marshes are features of low energy environments, such as estuaries and on the landward side of spits. Salt marshes are vegetated areas of deposited silts and clays.
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How are Salt Marshes formed?
All material is dropped from estuaries that reach the sea - when it buils up enough it colonises and the fertile material grows plants.
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Onshore Bars
A ridge of sand and shingle which has joined two headlands, cutting off a bay
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How are Onshore Bars formed?
A spit grows the whole way across a bay, a sandbank develops offshore parallel to the shor and is moved towards the coastline by the waves and the wind until it joins the mainland. Behind the bar, a lagoon is created where water has been trapped.
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Beaches
Beaches are landforms that are along a body of water - they usually consist of loose sediment such as sand and shingle
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How are Beaches formed?
Constructive waves help to build up beaches. A beach is formed when deposited materials carried by waves are accumulated in a zone along the coast.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

A bay is an area of water bordered by land on 3 sides

Back

Bays

Card 3

Front

Headlands form when the sea attacks a section of the coast and the bands of soft rock erodes, leaving the resistant rock jutting out into the sea. Where the soft rock has eroded is where the bays are formed.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Cliffs are high rocks that are seen at the edge of coastlines, normally made of chalk.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Undercutting by wave action leads to rockfall, At the base of the cliff. a gently sloping shore platform is cut into the solid rock.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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