COASTAL ENVIRONMENTS

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  • Created by: AmyLouu
  • Created on: 17-04-16 12:34
Mass Movements
Slow (creep), Fast (flows, slides, slumps), Very Fast (avalanche,free fall)
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mass movement occurs due to
climate (rain increases rock weight), Rock Type (soft rocks flow and slide more), Relief (steep slopes = more movement), Rate of Weathering (high due to rock exposure), aspect (direction of rain), Rate of erosion, Human Activity (adds weight)
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Types of Marine Transportation
floatation (floating on the surface), Traction (rolling), Saltation (bouncing along seabed), Solution (dissolved), Suspension (floating within water)
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Types of Marine Deposition
bed load (hard textured and dropped first), suspension (silt and sand), solution (rarely dropped unless mixed with salt)
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What determines the beach size, shape and gradient
material type, wave types, tides (often adds steps to beach), storms (erode or deposits) human activity.
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physical reasons for coastal protection
climate (global warming = rising sealevels), relief (low lying areas at risk), aspect (open to large wave fetch), depth of water (deeper = more erosive waves), loss of vegetation - Sri Lanka, rare and fragile ecosystems, weak rocks (prone to erosion)
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human reasons for coastal protection
settlements, raw materials, industrial sites, transportation, ports and docks, jobs at risk - fishing, tourism and recreation, cultural and historical sites
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methods of protection; hard engineering - isle of wight
sea walls, groynes, rip-rap, gabions, reventments, offshore bars
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problems of hard engineering
expensive, unsightly, not environmentally friendly, cause of problems further along the coast, ongoing maintenance.
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methods of protection; soft engineering - pevensey bay
beach replensishment, beach recycling, beach reprofiling, fencing, planting vegetation
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methods of protection; managed retreat - abbotts hall farm, essex
land allowed to flood to form salt marshes = absorbs wave energy. cheap and natural.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

climate (rain increases rock weight), Rock Type (soft rocks flow and slide more), Relief (steep slopes = more movement), Rate of Weathering (high due to rock exposure), aspect (direction of rain), Rate of erosion, Human Activity (adds weight)

Back

mass movement occurs due to

Card 3

Front

floatation (floating on the surface), Traction (rolling), Saltation (bouncing along seabed), Solution (dissolved), Suspension (floating within water)

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

bed load (hard textured and dropped first), suspension (silt and sand), solution (rarely dropped unless mixed with salt)

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

material type, wave types, tides (often adds steps to beach), storms (erode or deposits) human activity.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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