CNS pharmacology - Recreational drugs and Antipsychotics

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  • Created by: Jess
  • Created on: 15-05-14 16:46
What are the recreational effects of amphetamines?
Euphoria, increased confidence, hyperactivity, reduces physical and mental fatigue.
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What are the side effects of amphetamines?
Hypertension, insomnia, tremors, psychosis, dependence, reduced GI motility.
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How can cocaine be used clinically?
As a local anaesthetic due to its state-dependet block of Na channels.
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How does cocaine affect levels of neurtransmitter?
Elevates synaptic levels of the neurotransmitter by interfering with the reuptake transporter.
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What are psychoses?
Marked distortions of reality and disturbances in perception, intellectual functioning affecting mood, motivation and motor behaviour.
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What are the symptoms of schizophrenia?
Positive - delusions and hallucinations, disorganised speech, bizarre behaviour. Negative - loss or decrease of normal function, social interactions reduce, lack of motivation.
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What is the aetiology of schizophrenia?
Genetic and environmental. "a developmental brain disorder", thins occur (perhaps in utero) that precipitate changes that manifest in late teens/early adulthood.
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What are the neuropathological changes associated with schizophrenia?
Altered metabolism, blood flow and chemistry. Overactivity of dopaminergic systems especially mesolimbic associated with emotions and cognition.
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What are the typical Antipsychotics?
Phenothiazine derivatives. Group 1 - chlorpromazine, levomepromazine. Group 2 - pericyazine, pipotiazine. Group 3 - fluphenazine, prochlorperazine, trifluoperazine.
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Give some examples of atypical antipsychotics.
Amisulpride, aripiprazole, clozapine, olanzapine, quietapine, risperidone, sertindole, zotepine.
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What type of drugs are antipsychotics?
Antagonists of dopamine receptors (particularly D2 receptors).
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Why do drugs have side effects?
Due to interaction with molecular targets other than the desired one. Related to tissue distribution and function of molecular target.
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Which symptoms do antipsychotics affect?
Predominantly affect the positive effects.
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What did post mortem studies show about schizophrenia?
Increased striatal D2 receptors. Untreated schizophrenic patients have increased levels of striatal dopamine and D2 receptors.
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What is the experimental evidence for the increase in dopamine receptors?
Measured IBZM (selective D2 ligand binding), after 2 days treatment with alpha-methylparatyrosine (tyrosine hydroxylase inhibitor), large increase in IBZM binding in schizophrenic patients, only a small increase in normal patients.
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What is the effect of D2 receptors on neuronal activity?
G alpha i coupled receptors that reduce neural activity.
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Could decreasing levels of glutamate be an effective therapy for schizophrenia?
Early clinical trails show it is as effective as olanzapine on positive and negative symptoms.
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What is the glutamate hypothesis of schizophrenia?
Could be clinical psychosis is due to under activity of the NMDA receptor.
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What are the side effects of amphetamines?

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Hypertension, insomnia, tremors, psychosis, dependence, reduced GI motility.

Card 3

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How can cocaine be used clinically?

Back

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Card 4

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How does cocaine affect levels of neurtransmitter?

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Card 5

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What are psychoses?

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