Cloning Mammals

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  • Created by: joshd
  • Created on: 13-03-14 18:25
What is cloning a type of and what does it lead to?
Cloning is a type of asexual reproduction. It produces cells that are genetically identical to an original cell.
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What happens first with adult cell cloning?
Adult cell cloning involves taking an unfertilised egg cell and removing its nucleus. (the egg cell is enucleated)
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What happens secondly with adult cell cloning?
A nucleus is taking from an adult body cell (e.g, skin cell). This is a diploid nucleus containing the full number of chromosomes.
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What happens thirdly with adult cell cloning?
The diploid nucleus is inserted into the 'empty' egg cell.
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What happens fourthly with adult cell cloning?
The egg cell is then stimulated by an electric shock - this makes it divide by mitosis, like a normal embryo.
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What happens fifthly with adult cell cloning?
When the embryo is a ball of cells, it's implanted into an adult female to grow into a genetically identical copy (clone) of the original adult body cell.
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What could cloning mammals help with?
The shortage of organs for transplants. For example, genetically-modified pigs are being bred that could provide suitable organs for humans. If this is successful, then cloning these pigs could help to meet the demand for organ transplants.
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What could the study of animal clones lead to?
It could lead to a greater understanding of the development of the embryo, and of ageing and age-related disorders.
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What could cloning be used to preserve?
Endangered species.
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Issues: What does cloning lead to?
A "reduced gene pool"=fewer different alleles in a population. Example: If a population are all closely related and a new disease appear, they could all be wiped out,because there may be no allele in the population giving resistance to the disease.
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Issues: What might happen to cloned mammals?
They might not live as long.Dolly the sheep lived for 6yrs.She was put down as she had lung disease, and she also had arthritis.She was cloned from an older sheep, so her 'true' age may have been older. She may have been unlucky, however.
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Issues: What are the other risks?
- The cloning process often fails.Took hundreds of attempts to clone Dolly. - Clones are often born with genetic defects. - Cloned mammals' immune systems are sometimes unhealthy = suffer from more diseases.
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Card 2

Front

What happens first with adult cell cloning?

Back

Adult cell cloning involves taking an unfertilised egg cell and removing its nucleus. (the egg cell is enucleated)

Card 3

Front

What happens secondly with adult cell cloning?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

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What happens thirdly with adult cell cloning?

Back

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Card 5

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What happens fourthly with adult cell cloning?

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Preview of the front of card 5
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