Cloning and Genetic Engineering.

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  • Created by: naomi2310
  • Created on: 05-01-15 19:28
What two ways can plants be cloned. Describe it.
Cuttings, and Tissue Culture. Cuttings can be produced cheaply and quickly, they're pieces of good parent plants. Tissue Culture is where a few plant cells are placed in a growth medium with hormones.
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What are embryo transplants?
Sperm cells artificially fertilise an egg cell, the embryo that develops is then split many times to form CLONES.
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What is animal cell cloning?
Uses an unfertilised egg cell, removing it's nucleus (genetic material) and inserting it into an empty egg cell. The egg cell is given an electric shock. Making it divide, like a normal embryo.
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Give three issues surrounding cloning?
Cloning causes a 'reduced gene pool', fewer alleles in a population. Cloned animals might not be as healthy as normal ones. People worry that humans may be cloned in the future. Uh Oh.
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What are the advantages of cloning?
Could help endangered species. Could lead to a greater understanding of the development of the embryo, and of age-related disorders.
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Describe the process of tissue culture.
A few plant cells are put in a growth medium (e.g agar jelly) with hormones where they grow into new plants, clones of the parent plant. These plants can be made VERY quickly, in very little space and be grown all year. But it's quite expensive.
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How does Genetic Engineering use ENZYMES?
Enzymes are used to 'cut' genes from one organism's chromosomes using enzymes. Enzymes are used to cut another organism's chromosome and then to insert the useful gene. E.G INSULIN GENE.
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What are GM Crops?
GM - Genetically Modified Crops have had their genes modified, to make them resistant to viruses, insects and herbicides.
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What is 'Gene Therapy'
The treatment of disorders by inserting working genes into sufferers. e.g cystic fibrosis sufferers.
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What are the CONS of GM Crops, give 3.
1) Reduces farmland biodiversity, 2) GM Crops might not be safe, people may develop allergies. 3) Transplanted genes may get out into the natural environment. e.g herbicide-resistant gene may be picked up by weeds making 'superweeds'
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What are the PROS of GM Crops, give 3.
1) GM Crops can increase the yield of a crop, making more food. 2) Not everyone is convinced that GM Crops are safe 3) GM Crops are being grown elsewhere in the world often without any problems.
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How have sheep been genetically engineered?
They have been engineered to produce substances, like drugs, in their milk that can be used to treat human diseases.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are embryo transplants?

Back

Sperm cells artificially fertilise an egg cell, the embryo that develops is then split many times to form CLONES.

Card 3

Front

What is animal cell cloning?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Give three issues surrounding cloning?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the advantages of cloning?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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