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What are clones
A genetically identical organism-produced asexually-by mitosis-requiring one parent
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How are identical twins produced
When a zygote splits into 2. They are natural clones
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How do plants reproduce asexually
By producing runners
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How does bacteria divide asexually and what are the clones
By binary fission. The clones are all the resulting bacteria of the original bacterium
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Name 3 advantages of asexual reproduction
Quick so organisms reproduce rapidly and so take advantage of resources in the environment. It can also be completed if sexual reproduction fails or is not possible. All offspring have the genetic information to enable them to survive in their enviro
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List 1 disadvantage of asexual reproduction
No genetic variety so any genetic weaknesses will all be in the offspring which could reduce survival chances
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How is the English Elm tree adapted to reproduce asexually and why is this beneficial
They reproduce asexually following damage the the parent plant. This allows the species to survive catastrophes such as disease.
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How does the new english elm grow
In the form of root suckers or basal sprouts which appear within 2 months of the destruction of the main trunk .
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Where do the suckers in the english elm grow from
From meristem tissue in the trunk close to the ground where least damage is likely to have occurred
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List advantages to the elm of vegetative propagation
The suckers grow into a circle of new elms called a clonal patch which puts out new suckers so that the patch keeps expanding as far as possible
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List disadvantages to the elm of vegetative propagation
Once the new trees get to about 10cm in diameter they become infected and die in turn because the new trunks are clones of the old trunks which means they do not have resistance to fungal attack. No genetic variation means no natural selection
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What are the two main methods of artificial propagation
Taking cuttings and grafting
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Briefly describe the process of taking cuttings
A section of stem is cut between leaf joints and the cut end of the stem is treated with growth hormone to encourage root growth and planted. The cuttings form a new cloned plants
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Briefly describe grafting
A shoot section of a woody plant is joined to an already growing root and stem. The graft grows and is genetically identical tot he parent plant but the rootstock is genetically different.
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Name a more modern method of artificial propagation
Tissue culture
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Describe tissue culture
Explain taken from meristematic tissue-sterilise explant-aseptic condition-with alcohol-place on a growth medium-such as agar-contains nitrates-callus-callus subdivide-different hormones=differentiation-auxin=root-cytokinin=shoot-plantlet-transfer
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List advantages of tissue culture
Quick, mass production, maintains desired characteristics, disease free, genetically identical
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List disadvantages of tissue culture
Expensive, no genetic variation , all susceptible to same disease, decreased genetic diversity
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What are the two main methods of artificially cloning animals
Splitting embryos and nuclear transfer
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Briefly explain splitting embryos
When cells from a developing embryo are separated out and producing
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Briefly explain nuclear transfer
somatic cell- fused with - enucleated egg cell- from another goat- electric shock- in vitro- split - implanted
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Advantages of cloning animals
All offspring inherit desired gene- all make desired product- increased rate of reproduction- species eggs not required-fertile female not required- successfully formed embryos can be cloned- avoid mating risks-
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Disadvantages of cloning animals
No genetic variability- all susceptible †ø same disease- shorter lifespan-poor success rate- expensive
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Advantages of non reproductive cloning (using cloned cells)
No rejection by immune system as genetically identical-totipotent so can become any cell- reduce waiting list for donor organs- less dangerous
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Disadvantages of non reproductive cloning
Ethical objections to use of embryonic materials. Lack of understanding of how cloned cells will behave overtime.
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What is reproductive cloning
Make a complete organisms that is genetically identical to mother
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Why is reproductive cloning used
To save endangered species from extinction, research purposes, increase number of animals with desirable characteristics
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Advantage of reproductive cloning
More reliable research as variable derived from genetic differences are removed
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What is non reproductive cloning
Used to make stem cells in order to generate replacement cells, tissues or organs
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Why non reproductive cloning used
To replace damaged tissues in a rane of diseases in the body
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


How are identical twins produced


When a zygote splits into 2. They are natural clones

Card 3


How do plants reproduce asexually


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Card 4


How does bacteria divide asexually and what are the clones


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Name 3 advantages of asexual reproduction


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