Cloning 5.6

HideShow resource information
What is a clone?
A genetically identical copy
1 of 24
Examples of natural cloning (3)
Bacteria - binary fission. Yeast - budding. Plants (Runners, strawberry. Bulbs, daffodil. Corms, tulips.) - mitosis
2 of 24
Are there any natural human clones?
Monozygotic (identical) twins - zygote split at early stage and developed into two embryo's
3 of 24
Examples of artificial cloning (3)
Plant cuttings, Micropropagation of plants, Cloning of animals
4 of 24
Micropropagation - Sequence
Meristem - Explant - Callus - Plantlet
5 of 24
Micropropagation - Steps 1-4/7
Desirable plant selected - Meristem removed from shoot (sterile conditions) - Meristem cut into Explants - Explants placed on sterile aerated medium (agar)
6 of 24
Micropropagation - Steps 5-7
Explants grow into a Callus (undifferentiated cells) - Callus cut and allowed to grow and differentiate on agar and becomes a Plantlet - Plantlets transplanted into sterile soil
7 of 24
What is improtant about Meristematic cells - Explain
Totipotent - Can become any type of cell and can develop into a new individual - Capable of cell division by mitosis
8 of 24
Why must conditions be sterile?
Bacteria and fungi could grow and compete with the developing plants for nutrients
9 of 24
Micropropagation - Advantages (5)
Large numbers of genetically identical plants (desirable characteristics maintained) - Higher survival rates - Quicker than sexual reproduction - Large number stored in small area (costs) - Unique genotypes preserved
10 of 24
Why is it important that unique genotypes are preserved?
Maintains genetic stocks - Endangered species, Medicinal plants, Crop plants
11 of 24
Micropropagation - Disadvantages (3)
Genetically unstable (increased mutation) increases labour costs for finding abnormal plants - Hard and costly to maintain sterile conditions - Genetically identical plants have the same susceptibility to disease
12 of 24
Animal cell tissue culture
Producing a large number of a particular type of cell from a small number of originals
13 of 24
Tissue cultures - Uses
Production of cancer cells (Research for treatment) - Production of host cells for viruses (Delvelop vaccine) - Production of monoclonal antibodies (Pregnancy tests)
14 of 24
Stem cells - Advantage
Totipotent - can differentiate into more than one type of cell
15 of 24
Where are they found?
Bone marrow, Adult testis, Umbilical cord
16 of 24
Where do most that are used come from?
Early Embryos from IVF
17 of 24
What is the advantage of stem cell organ transplants?
Organ not rejected by immune system - Don't require immunosuppressive drugs
18 of 24
Animal cloning - Types (2)
Splitting Embryos - Nuclear Transfer
19 of 24
Splitting Embryos - Stages
Fertilisation - Cell division (to 8 cell stage) - Cells split into 4 - Cells develop into identical embryos - Placed into surrogate mother (contributes no genetic information)
20 of 24
What would happen if a different egg or sperm was used?
Produce genetically different embryos to the other egg and sperm due to different combinations of alleles
21 of 24
Why is the Embryo split at an early stage?
So that the cells haven't differentiated
22 of 24
Nuclear Transfer - Stages
Nucleus removed from an unfertilised egg (enucleated) - Nucleus from anothers body cell inserted into enucleated egg (micropipette) - Laboratory culture to 16 cell stage - Placed in uterus of surrogate mother
23 of 24
Animal cloning - Disadvantages (4)
Expensice and unreliable (low success rate) - Premature ageing - Large organ syndrome - Unethical?
24 of 24

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Examples of natural cloning (3)

Back

Bacteria - binary fission. Yeast - budding. Plants (Runners, strawberry. Bulbs, daffodil. Corms, tulips.) - mitosis

Card 3

Front

Are there any natural human clones?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Examples of artificial cloning (3)

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Micropropagation - Sequence

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all Applications of Reproduction and Genetics resources »