Clinical/psycholinguistics

  • Created by: kyotomani
  • Created on: 02-06-18 10:20
State the labels of the communicative cycle (clockwise)
Communicative intention, language encoding, motor programming, motor execution, speech, sensory processing, speech perception, language decoding
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Describe what happens at the language encoding phase
Choosing correct syntactic, semantic, phonological structure
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Describe what happens at the sensory processing phase
Our eyes and ears receive the audiovisual cues, sending messages to the brain of what has been heard
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Describe what happens at the speech perception stage
Recognising we are hearing speech rather than something that isn't speech
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List some disorders that can affect communication, and state which part is affected to cause it
Schizophrenia (comm intention), Apraxia (mot. prog), Sensorineural deafness (sens. proc), Brocas apahasia (lang. encod)
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How do we break down the disorders to understand them
Epidemiology, aetiology, assessment, treatment/intervention
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What are the 4 potential factors that contribute to an aetiology
Genetic, neurological, environmental, psychological
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Describe incidence and prevalence, and how to workout prevalence statistics
Incidence = The number of new cases diagnosed in a time frame, prevalence = the number of people who have a condition at a particular moment. Number of cases÷total number of people
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Describe aphasia
A cognitive disorder marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or express language in its written or spoken forms.
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What are the 4 most common causes for aphasia
Stroke, traumatic brain injury, brain tumour, infections (encephalitis)
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What is Brocas aphasia
A form of non fluent aphasia that results in sever problems with the production of speech, typically leaves the patient with telegraphic speech. Brocas aphasia doesn't affect understanding.
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What is Wernickes aphasia
A form of fluent aphasia that leaves patients producing incoherent speech, they typically have trouble with understanding what has been said. There is an increased use of jargon, neologisms and phonemic paraphasia
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Describe the difference between an acquired and developmental disorder
Acquired disorders occur after there has been a time of typical linguistic ability. They are often the result of brain damage. Developmental disorders begin from birth or during infancy, therefore there has never been typical language ability
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What is theory of mind, and how can we test if a child has this
Being able to understand that other people have separate thoughts and feelings to you, can be tested with the sally anne test
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What issues do ASD patients have with language
Problems with sarcasm/irony, difficulty having a free flowing discourse, problems with adjusting speech to the context. echolalia
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What is echolalia
The repetition of previously heard words, used even if they are not the correct response
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What are some intervention methods for ASD
Play therapy e.g. LEGO club and PECS (pictures exchange communication system)
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What is the McGurk effect
When the brain sees a phoneme, but hears a different one, so the brain makes a halfway guess as to what is being said
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List Hockett's design features (1960)
Prudctivity, cultural transmission, arbitrariness, duality of patterning, displacement
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What is meant by productivity
The ability to create an infinite number of sentences from finite resources
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What is meant by cultural transmission
That we do not instinctively know the language and we be taught it
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What is meant by duality of patterning
That human language can be broken down into smaller meaningful units, e.g. phonemes, morphemes
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What is meant by displacement
We can talk about events that are spatially and temporally displaced. E.g. John is in Japan
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What is meant by arbitrariness
That there is no link between the word and the meaning, it simply just means that
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What are the 4 pieces of evidence that we have a 'mental lexicon'
Slips of the tongue, word association, clinical data (tip of the tongue syndrome), experimental evidence (priming tests)
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Describe what happens at the language encoding phase

Back

Choosing correct syntactic, semantic, phonological structure

Card 3

Front

Describe what happens at the sensory processing phase

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Describe what happens at the speech perception stage

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

List some disorders that can affect communication, and state which part is affected to cause it

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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