Clinical

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  • Created by: Hubbs123
  • Created on: 23-04-14 12:28
What is Clinical Psychology?
The study of abnormal behaviour. It looks at what is classified as abnormal behaviours, diagnosing these behaviours and treating them.
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What is primary data?
Data gathered first hand for the purpose of your investigations
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What is a strength of primary data?
Reliable, because the researcher can replicate procedures to check the results, as they know what the procedure is and how data was collected and analysed.
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What is a weakness of primary data?
It may be subjective in what kind of data they look for, in particular data that fits the hypothesis they are trying to test
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What is secondary data?
Second hand analysis of pre exisiting data.
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What is a strength of secondary data?
Saves time and expense that would be spent collecting data
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What is a weakness of secondary data?
Researcher cannot personally check the data so its reliability may be questioned
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How is a study made more reliable?
Ensure there is at least 2 researchers conducting and analysing the experiment, to avoid bias or subjective data
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What is validity?
How accurate is the the findings in a study to theories and previous experiments. Also do the results relate to the hypothesis.
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What are the two methods for animal studies?
Ethological and Laboratory
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What are ethological methods?
Animals are studied in their natural environment, through naturalistic observation or experimentation where some aspects of the environment are manipulated
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What are animal laboratory studies?
Animals are studied in an artificial environment, allowing precise control and measurement of variables.
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What is an ethical consideration for animal studies in terms of the Animal Act (1986)?
If animals are harmed or stressed in any way , assessments must be carried out to ensure information gained justifies procedure. Procedures which cause pain or distress to animals are illegal in the UK.
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What is the main cause of Schizophrenia?
Chemical inbalance in the brain and the overproduction of the neurotransmitter dopamine
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What is a strength of using animals to study Schizophrenia?
More convenient and practical because animals reproduce quicker than humans therefore we can study them across their lifespan and into other generations.
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What is a weakness of using animals to study Sz?
Lacks ecological validity and you cannot assess suffering. It is morally wrong to inflict pain and distress on animals.
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What does Mz twins mean?
Identical twins, share 100% of their genetics
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What does DZ twins means?
Non identical twins, share 50% of genetics
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What is a concordance rate?
Rate of agreement between 2 variables
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What is a strength of using twin studies?
Can help identify trends in families, once indentified tests can be carried out and the genes can be isolated
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What is a weakness of using twin studies?
It does not show cause and effect, for example the concordance rate of 50% suggest SZ runs in the family, however they do not consider other possible causes such as the environments and experiences.
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What is the statistical definition of abnormality?
The assumption is that any human characteristic is spread in a normal way acorss general population. When plotted on a graph, it will form a curve with the majority of people falling in the middle of the curve.
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An evaluation point for statistical definition?
It does not tell us the difference between desirable behaviour and undesirable behaviour which is infrequent
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What is the social norms definition?
In society there are unwritten rules for behaviour that we expect in others as well as behaviour we dont expect. This sets social norms which decides what behaviour is seen as normal or moral.
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An evaluation point for social norms definition?
This definition of abnormality can lead to an abuse of a persons rights based on what society sees as normal.
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How to diagnose mental disorders?
The diagnositic statistic manual
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What are the three types of validity that need to be taken into account when diagnosing a mental disorder?
Etiological validity, concurrent validity and predictive validity
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What is etiological validity?
A group of people that have been diagnosed with same disoder will have same factors
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What is concurrent validity?
Symptoms that form part of the disorder but are not part of the actual diagnosis should be found in those diagnosed
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What is predictive validity?
It is present if diagnosis can lead to a prediction of future behaviours caused by the disorder
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Why is the culture issue with diagnosing a mental disorder?
It can affect diagnosis and treatment as cultures have different attitudes to mental disorders.
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What are some positive symptoms of Sz?
Hallucinations (patients hears of sees things that dont exist), delusions (patient thinks their actions are being controlled by outside forces), Thought insertion (patient thinks that the thoughts in their head are put there by someone else)
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What are some negative symptoms of Sz?
Poverty of speech (patient uses few words as possible), social withdrawal (patient no longer interacts with family and friends) and flattening affect (patient has a lack of expression in their voice and does not show emotions on their face)
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What are genetic factors in terms of a biological explanation of Sz?
It does seem to run in the family therefore it has a genetic link. However it is caused by a number of genes not one.
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What are biochemical factors in terms of an explanation of Sz?
The dopamine hypothesis looks at the role of the neurotransmitter dopamine as a cause of Sz.
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What is the cognitive explanation of Sz?
It sees the cause of Sz as an issue with processing information.
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What is a biological treatment of Sz?
Drug therapy - Antipsychotic drugs help sedate a person and reduce the intensity and frequency of hallucinations and delusions. They block the dopamine in the dopamine receptors.
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What is a strength for drug therapy as a treatment for Sz?
Drugs allow patients to live in society avoiding being staying in a hospital long term.
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What is a weakness of drug therapy as a treatment of Sz?
The drug have side effects such as tightening of muscles, dry mouth and fidgeting.
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What is a cognitive therapy for Sz?
CBT (cognitive behavioural therapy) - The therapy combines the cognitve and behavioural approaches.
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What does CBT focus on?
Present behaviour and thoughts
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A strength of CBT?
Effective for patients who dont respond to drugs
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What does anorexia nervose mean?
Nervous loss of appetite
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Symptoms of anorexia?
Refusal to eat, fear of gaining weight, distorted perception of body weight, weight less than 85%
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When is anorexia prevalant?
90% of cases are females between the age of 13 and 18.
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What is the learning explanation of anorexia nervosa?
Develops due to the rewards from the environment. Due to people having role models in the media some people are rewarded for not eating and this abnormal behaviour is reinforced
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A strength of the learning explanation of anorexia nervosa?
SLT helps explain and understand the disorder, as well as information on media influences.
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What is a weakness of the learning explanation of anorexia nervosa?
It is hard to show whether anorexia is acquired through either classical or operant conditioning, as the person has not been studied from birth.
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What is the biological approach of anorexia nervosa?
The biological approach assumes that our behaviour is controlled by the activity in the central nervous system (brain). Due to the brain being organised into regions which have different roles, a malfunction in one region may cause behavioural issue
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A strength of the biological approach explaining anorexia nervosa?
The person who is anorexic is not held reponsible for their behaviour and is more likely to be seen as a victim as they have little control. This takes away labelling issues.
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A weakness of the biological approach explaining anorexia nervosa?
It is difficult to differentiate between the cause and effect as the symptoms of anorexia have a direct effect on the person.
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What is free association?
A therapist will work to uncover internal conflicts causing the disturbance and to help the patient come to terms with them at a concious level. Patients are asked to talk freely about their earliest memories and feeling that way.
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What is a strength of free association?
It is in depth and looks at all levels of functioning from earl childhood onwards.
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What is a weakness of free association?
It could be seen as innappropriate for people with certain disorders, and asking patients to talk in depth about their issues may reinforce them.
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What is the process of an ECT?
1- Medical examination carried out, patient is not allowed food for 6 hours, patient is put to sleep; 2- two electrodes are attached to the patients head and a current of between 65-140v is passed through head;3-Patient woken up 10 mins after current
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What is care in the community?
It avoids people being hospitalised with mental disorders, instead they live in the real world and are provided with support from care staff. They are also encouraged to make their own decisions and be independant.
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A strength of care in the community?
When funded, community care seems more effective than in a hospital, even though their symptoms didnt improve their quality of life did.
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A weakness of care in the community?
There is a lack of co-ordination between the differnet services involved, so people get inconsistent advice.
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What is Rosenhan (1973) study?
To see if the sane could be distinguished from the insane using the DSM classification system
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What were the key parts of the procedure?
He sent eight patients to 12 different hospitals and were told to tell the hospital they could hear an unfamiliar voice syaing empty, hollow and thud. When admitted to a psychiatric ward the patients stopped their abnormal symptoms
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What were the results of Rosenhan's study?
All patients were admitted and none were detected as being sane. All but one had a diagnosis of Sz in remission, they stayed in hospitals for between 7 and 52 days.
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What was the conclusion of Rosenhan'd study?
Staff were unable to distinguish those who were sane from those who were insane, and that the DSM was not a valid measurement
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What is a strength of Rosenhan's study?
Was carried out in a actual psychiatric hospital using real staff who were unaware of study
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What is a weakness of Rosenhan's study?
Hospital staff wer decieved about patients symptoms, nor did they knwo they were taking part in a study.
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What is Goldstein (1988)?
To see if there was a significant difference in age to when SZ affected men an women, as well as to see if women have a less severe course of the disorder than men
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How many participants did Goldstein have?
199 men and women
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What was the procedure of Goldsteins study?
He had participants that had already been diagnosed with Sz as well as people who had lived in a psychiatric hospital for less than 6 months, and get 169 to be rediagnosed with a more up to date DSM.
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What did they find with Goldsteins experiment?
30 were deemed to no longer have Sz.
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what did Goldstein conclude?
Gender difference are present at the early stages of the disorder
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What is a strength of Goldsteins study?
It was a longitudinal study and didnt suffer with participants dropping out.
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What is a weakness of Goldsteins study?
It cannot be generalised to familes who didnt go back to their families after being hospitalised.
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What is primary data?

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Data gathered first hand for the purpose of your investigations

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What is a weakness of primary data?

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What is secondary data?

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