Clinical studies

  • Created by: evr
  • Created on: 05-05-18 11:36
Showed diagnosis to be unreliable. Gave US and UK psychiatrists same videotaped interview to diagnose. US said schizophrenia and UK said depression.
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Ullman and Krasener
Suggest that in psychiatric institutions staff may unintentionally reinforce schizophrenia by giving attention.
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Sees bizarre use of language in schizophrenia as result of fault in how information is processed. Certain words are vulnerable.
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Carey and Gottesman
MZ twins show concordance of 87% for OCD compared to 47% in DZ twins.
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Shows that four Ds have validity as they are found in cases of mental disorders. Suggested fifth D of duration.
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Supports reliability in DSM. Found DSM-III to be reliable as greement between clinicians.
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Suggest schizophrenia is just another way of living, not an illness.
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Kirk and Kutchins
Disputes reliability of DSM. Artificial, untraiend interviewers etc.
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Found good reliabilty in DSM. Two independent interviews on 362 patients showed good reliabilty in anxiet.
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Found validity in DSM in children with conduct disorder.
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Found validity in DSM for ADHD. Teachers agreed with DSM-IV-TR, but boys matched DSM criteria more than girls.
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Found reliability when comparing ICD-10 with DSM.
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Found reliability when comparing ICD-10 with DSM-III-R.
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Found the ICD-10 to be more reliable than DSM-IV for schizophrenia.
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Found vlidity in diagnosis as ICD-10, DSM-IV and DSM-III-R corresponded 70% of the time for schizophrenia.
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Found validity in diagnosis as ICD-10 and DSM-IV gave best agreement regarding diagnosis. But ICD-9 and ICD-10 focused on different things for schizophrenia.
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Ellason and Ross
Those diagnosed with dissociative identity disorder suit features and symptoms of schizophrenia more than those diagnosed with schizophrenia for positive symptoms.
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Gottesman and Shields
MZ twins had concordance of schizophrenia of 58% and DZ of 26%.
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Found figure of 81% heritability for schizophrenia.
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In some cultures hearing voices/being schizophrenic is good.
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Found DSM diagnostic criteria to be reliable for 803 pathological gamblers.
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Stetka and Ghaemi
Almost 50% of clinicians think the DSM-V is not reliable.
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Showed DSM-IV-TR to be valid for diagnosis of alcohol abuse, alcohol dependence and cocaine dependence.
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Clinicians can be influenced by the opinion of a respected authority when diagnosing.
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Used self reports and found Mexican born American have more auditory hallucinations reported to doctors than white Americans.
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Clinicians described a healthy woman as submissive, emotional and dependent, which suggests bad health.
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Lin and Kleinman
Found that schizophrenics recover more in a non-industrialised society.
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Argues that disorders show enough recognisable core symptoms in every culture to be regarded as universal.
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Found that schizophrenics are 70% more likely to attempt suicide.
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Found that schizophrenics are treated differently when labelled, and are treated as not people.
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Looked at dopamine and glutamate hypothesis.
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Gives schizophrenogenic mother explanation of schizophrenia.
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Gives double bind theory of schizophrenia.
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Showed that social adversity in childhood relates to the development of schizophrenia.
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Found that experiencing discrimmination accompanies an invreased risk of schizophrenia and other psychosis.
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Found about 50% of patients stop taking drugs for schizophrenia due to the side effects.
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Clozapine has been shown to reduce both positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia including emotional withdrawal.
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Atypical drugs give fewer negative side affects than typical drugs.
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Found that schizophrenic patients stop taking atypical drugs due to them not working.
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3/6 schizophrenics reattributed voices to themselves after CBT and had fewer hallucinations and less stress.
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Kingdon and Turkington
35/65 patients had fewer symptoms of schizophrenia after CBT and 63 could live in the community.
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CBT is affective for positive symptoms when used alongside drugs.
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Turkington and Mckenna
CBT helps with stress, distress, depression and anxiety.
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Found CBT reduced hopelessness, but not as effective as other treatment.
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Found no difference in favour of CBT in relation to delusions and hallucinations.
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Of 13 studies related to CBT, only 4 had a control and under blind conditions.
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Rasmussen and Eisen
Certain factors are common to all OCD patients: anxiety, fear of something happening, belief that compulsions provide relief.
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Assessment tools can't distinguish between depression and OCD.
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If Y-BOCs is redone, it is reliable if the time between is short.
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Found significant differences between OCD diagnosis in relation to fears of contamination between black and white population in USA.
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Psychosurgery which disconnects the basal ganglia from the OFC can reduce symptoms in severe OCD.
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OFC or basal ganglia damage can give rise to OCD.
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A chronic lack of social interaction as a baby may prune the neural links to the OFC.
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Cingulate gyrus, basal ganglia and orbito frontal cortex are active when OCD symptoms are stimulated.
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Showed activity present in areas not normally associated with OCD: cerebellum and parietal cortex, showing th OFC circuit idea is not sufficient.
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Cingulotomy was successful in decreasing anxiety and OCD behaviour.
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Cingulotomy is only beneficial in 30% of OCD patients.
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Used Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to treat OCD patients rather than psychosurgery.
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Used TMS and 'sham TMS' on OCD patients and found no difference in symptoms when assessed with Y-BOCs.
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Found that people with OCD have more intrusive thoughts than normal people.
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External criticism and appraisals are important in the causation of OCD.
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Inflated sense of personal responsibility increases symptoms of OCD as this makes intrusions more frequent and distressing, leading to compulsions.
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OCD sufferers believe that thinking aout something increases the chances it will happen and belief of an immoral thought is the same as acting in an immoral way.
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White bear study. If trying to suppress a particular thought, it leads to an increase in the thoughts later.
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Salkovskis and Kirk
Support the maladaptive thoughts explanation as OCD sufferers think of something more when told to supress it.
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Behaviour and cognitions correlated on patients with OCD.
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Found inflated responsibitlity was a good predictor of strength of OCD symptoms.
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CBT is no more effective than ERP, so therapy with a behavioural forcus does just as well as cognitive focus.
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When 10 patients were given 4 weeks of intensive ERP, they showed significant improvements.
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Reported the progress of client with ERP and showed steady decline in cleaning behaviour.
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Only 1/3 patients met criteria that show ERP made them recover, but 2/3 said they had recovered.
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OCD can be treated on a computer, cheaper and mroe accessable than ERP.
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Found that a combination of CBT and drug therapy was most effective form of treatement for OCD.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Suggest that in psychiatric institutions staff may unintentionally reinforce schizophrenia by giving attention.


Ullman and Krasener

Card 3


Sees bizarre use of language in schizophrenia as result of fault in how information is processed. Certain words are vulnerable.


Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4


MZ twins show concordance of 87% for OCD compared to 47% in DZ twins.


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


Shows that four Ds have validity as they are found in cases of mental disorders. Suggested fifth D of duration.


Preview of the back of card 5
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