Clinical studies

  • Created by: evr
  • Created on: 05-05-18 11:36
Cooper
Showed diagnosis to be unreliable. Gave US and UK psychiatrists same videotaped interview to diagnose. US said schizophrenia and UK said depression.
1 of 73
Ullman and Krasener
Suggest that in psychiatric institutions staff may unintentionally reinforce schizophrenia by giving attention.
2 of 73
Maher
Sees bizarre use of language in schizophrenia as result of fault in how information is processed. Certain words are vulnerable.
3 of 73
Carey and Gottesman
MZ twins show concordance of 87% for OCD compared to 47% in DZ twins.
4 of 73
Davis
Shows that four Ds have validity as they are found in cases of mental disorders. Suggested fifth D of duration.
5 of 73
Goldstein
Supports reliability in DSM. Found DSM-III to be reliable as greement between clinicians.
6 of 73
Laing
Suggest schizophrenia is just another way of living, not an illness.
7 of 73
Kirk and Kutchins
Disputes reliability of DSM. Artificial, untraiend interviewers etc.
8 of 73
Brown
Found good reliabilty in DSM. Two independent interviews on 362 patients showed good reliabilty in anxiet.
9 of 73
Kim-Cohen
Found validity in DSM in children with conduct disorder.
10 of 73
Lee
Found validity in DSM for ADHD. Teachers agreed with DSM-IV-TR, but boys matched DSM criteria more than girls.
11 of 73
Jakobsen
Found reliability when comparing ICD-10 with DSM.
12 of 73
Hiller
Found reliability when comparing ICD-10 with DSM-III-R.
13 of 73
Cheniaux
Found the ICD-10 to be more reliable than DSM-IV for schizophrenia.
14 of 73
Pihlajamaa
Found vlidity in diagnosis as ICD-10, DSM-IV and DSM-III-R corresponded 70% of the time for schizophrenia.
15 of 73
Jansson
Found validity in diagnosis as ICD-10 and DSM-IV gave best agreement regarding diagnosis. But ICD-9 and ICD-10 focused on different things for schizophrenia.
16 of 73
Ellason and Ross
Those diagnosed with dissociative identity disorder suit features and symptoms of schizophrenia more than those diagnosed with schizophrenia for positive symptoms.
17 of 73
Gottesman and Shields
MZ twins had concordance of schizophrenia of 58% and DZ of 26%.
18 of 73
Sullivan
Found figure of 81% heritability for schizophrenia.
19 of 73
Luhrmann
In some cultures hearing voices/being schizophrenic is good.
20 of 73
Stinchfield
Found DSM diagnostic criteria to be reliable for 803 pathological gamblers.
21 of 73
Stetka and Ghaemi
Almost 50% of clinicians think the DSM-V is not reliable.
22 of 73
Hoffman
Showed DSM-IV-TR to be valid for diagnosis of alcohol abuse, alcohol dependence and cocaine dependence.
23 of 73
Temerlime
Clinicians can be influenced by the opinion of a respected authority when diagnosing.
24 of 73
Burnham
Used self reports and found Mexican born American have more auditory hallucinations reported to doctors than white Americans.
25 of 73
Broverman
Clinicians described a healthy woman as submissive, emotional and dependent, which suggests bad health.
26 of 73
Lin and Kleinman
Found that schizophrenics recover more in a non-industrialised society.
27 of 73
Gross
Argues that disorders show enough recognisable core symptoms in every culture to be regarded as universal.
28 of 73
Duerr
Found that schizophrenics are 70% more likely to attempt suicide.
29 of 73
Rosenhan
Found that schizophrenics are treated differently when labelled, and are treated as not people.
30 of 73
Carlsson
Looked at dopamine and glutamate hypothesis.
31 of 73
Fromm-Reichman
Gives schizophrenogenic mother explanation of schizophrenia.
32 of 73
Bateson
Gives double bind theory of schizophrenia.
33 of 73
Hjem
Showed that social adversity in childhood relates to the development of schizophrenia.
34 of 73
Veling
Found that experiencing discrimmination accompanies an invreased risk of schizophrenia and other psychosis.
35 of 73
Guo
Found about 50% of patients stop taking drugs for schizophrenia due to the side effects.
36 of 73
Brar
Clozapine has been shown to reduce both positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia including emotional withdrawal.
37 of 73
Seeman
Atypical drugs give fewer negative side affects than typical drugs.
38 of 73
McEvoy
Found that schizophrenic patients stop taking atypical drugs due to them not working.
39 of 73
Bentall
3/6 schizophrenics reattributed voices to themselves after CBT and had fewer hallucinations and less stress.
40 of 73
Kingdon and Turkington
35/65 patients had fewer symptoms of schizophrenia after CBT and 63 could live in the community.
41 of 73
Zimmerman
CBT is affective for positive symptoms when used alongside drugs.
42 of 73
Turkington and Mckenna
CBT helps with stress, distress, depression and anxiety.
43 of 73
Barrowclough
Found CBT reduced hopelessness, but not as effective as other treatment.
44 of 73
Tarrier
Found no difference in favour of CBT in relation to delusions and hallucinations.
45 of 73
Cormac
Of 13 studies related to CBT, only 4 had a control and under blind conditions.
46 of 73
Rasmussen and Eisen
Certain factors are common to all OCD patients: anxiety, fear of something happening, belief that compulsions provide relief.
47 of 73
Woody
Assessment tools can't distinguish between depression and OCD.
48 of 73
Kim
If Y-BOCs is redone, it is reliable if the time between is short.
49 of 73
Williams
Found significant differences between OCD diagnosis in relation to fears of contamination between black and white population in USA.
50 of 73
Rapoport
Psychosurgery which disconnects the basal ganglia from the OFC can reduce symptoms in severe OCD.
51 of 73
Coetzer
OFC or basal ganglia damage can give rise to OCD.
52 of 73
Gerhardt
A chronic lack of social interaction as a baby may prune the neural links to the OFC.
53 of 73
Whiteside
Cingulate gyrus, basal ganglia and orbito frontal cortex are active when OCD symptoms are stimulated.
54 of 73
Sanematsu
Showed activity present in areas not normally associated with OCD: cerebellum and parietal cortex, showing th OFC circuit idea is not sufficient.
55 of 73
Baer
Cingulotomy was successful in decreasing anxiety and OCD behaviour.
56 of 73
Crosgrove
Cingulotomy is only beneficial in 30% of OCD patients.
57 of 73
Greenburg
Used Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to treat OCD patients rather than psychosurgery.
58 of 73
Rodriguez-Martin
Used TMS and 'sham TMS' on OCD patients and found no difference in symptoms when assessed with Y-BOCs.
59 of 73
Clark
Found that people with OCD have more intrusive thoughts than normal people.
60 of 73
Pace
External criticism and appraisals are important in the causation of OCD.
61 of 73
Salkovskis
Inflated sense of personal responsibility increases symptoms of OCD as this makes intrusions more frequent and distressing, leading to compulsions.
62 of 73
Rachman
OCD sufferers believe that thinking aout something increases the chances it will happen and belief of an immoral thought is the same as acting in an immoral way.
63 of 73
Wegner
White bear study. If trying to suppress a particular thought, it leads to an increase in the thoughts later.
64 of 73
Salkovskis and Kirk
Support the maladaptive thoughts explanation as OCD sufferers think of something more when told to supress it.
65 of 73
Stekett
Behaviour and cognitions correlated on patients with OCD.
66 of 73
Libby
Found inflated responsibitlity was a good predictor of strength of OCD symptoms.
67 of 73
Abramowitz
CBT is no more effective than ERP, so therapy with a behavioural forcus does just as well as cognitive focus.
68 of 73
Saxana
When 10 patients were given 4 weeks of intensive ERP, they showed significant improvements.
69 of 73
Rachman
Reported the progress of client with ERP and showed steady decline in cleaning behaviour.
70 of 73
Eddy
Only 1/3 patients met criteria that show ERP made them recover, but 2/3 said they had recovered.
71 of 73
Griest
OCD can be treated on a computer, cheaper and mroe accessable than ERP.
72 of 73
March
Found that a combination of CBT and drug therapy was most effective form of treatement for OCD.
73 of 73

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Suggest that in psychiatric institutions staff may unintentionally reinforce schizophrenia by giving attention.

Back

Ullman and Krasener

Card 3

Front

Sees bizarre use of language in schizophrenia as result of fault in how information is processed. Certain words are vulnerable.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

MZ twins show concordance of 87% for OCD compared to 47% in DZ twins.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Shows that four Ds have validity as they are found in cases of mental disorders. Suggested fifth D of duration.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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