Classification + diagnosis of schizo

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  • Created by: Gemma
  • Created on: 04-05-14 08:47
What are some examples of positive symptoms?
Delusions, hallucinations, disordered thinking
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What are some examples of negative symptoms?
Alogia (poverty of speech) , affective flattening , avolition (reduction in motivation)
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What is validity? (specific to schizo)
The extent that a diagnosis represents something that is real + distinct from other disorders
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What is comorbidity?
the extent that 2/more conditions can occur alongside one another
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Buckley et al
Estimates comorbid depression occurs in 50% of patients + a lifetime of comorbid drug abuse occurs in 47% of patients
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AO2 Buckley et al
Shows that it is in fact very difficult in diagnosing the disorder + shows maybe how much more complex schizo is
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Klösterkötter et al
489 patients , trying to determine +/- symptoms are better in diagnosing schizo - found + symptoms more useful
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Ellason + Ross
People with DID (dissociative identity disorder) actually have more schizo symptoms than those diagnose with schizo
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Without a valid diagnosis , the consistency of diagnosis cannot be...
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Which 2 types of reliability is looked at?
Inter-rater reliability + Test-retest reliability
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What is inter-rater reliability?
whether 2 independent assessors give similar diagnoses
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Which diagnostic tools are looked at?
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Carlson (IRR)
DSM-III was reviewed by him + found how successful it was , therefore should have led to an agreement of who had schizo or not
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Whaley (IRR)
Found only an inter-rater reliability correlation of +0.11
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Rosenhan (IRR)
pseudo patients, including Rosenhan claimed they heard voices saying 'thud' 'empty' 'hollow'. They were diagnosed as having schizo , none of the staff noticed they were normal + found once they had been labelled as schizo, was hard to prove otherwise
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AO2 Rosenhan
Also said he'd send in pseudo patients in next 6 months, he didnt + detection rate dropped by 21%. Also another point is that the researcher should never get involved himself , otherwise they might get too involved + forget what the actual aim was.
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What is test-retest reliability?
Whether tests used in diagnosis are consistent over time
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What is RBANS?
a diagnostic tool used to measure the neurophysiological impairement
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Wilks et al (TRR)
Administered 2 forms of the RBANS test over 1-134 days + found that the test-retest was high as 0.84 - showing maybe this test should be used instead of DSM/ICD
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Cheniaux et al (TRR)
Tested the test-retest reliability of DSM-III + ICD-10 + found it was above +0.50 for both. however more were freq. diagnosed with ICD-10. still pretty poor
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Issues with schizo diagnosis?
Can't really come up with a valid diagnosis + therefore reliable classification system because there is a lack of understanding of the nature of schizo + what it actually is. E.G. undifferenciated schizo- patient doesn't fit any other types.
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If we can come up with a better diagnosis + understanding of the disease, then this can lead to a treatment to improve the lives of those with the disease
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Card 2


What are some examples of negative symptoms?


Alogia (poverty of speech) , affective flattening , avolition (reduction in motivation)

Card 3


What is validity? (specific to schizo)


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Card 4


What is comorbidity?


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Card 5


Buckley et al


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