Classification of Motor Skills and Abilities

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What is a Continuum?
An imaginary scale between two extremes that shows a gradual increase/decrease in a number of characterists
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What are the two extremes of muscular involvement?
Gross - Fine
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What are the two extremes of environmental influence?
Open - Closed
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What are two extremes of organisation?
Low - High
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What are the two extremes of difficulty?
Simple- Complex
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What is a gross skill?
Skills involving large muscle movements where there is little concern for precision. For example, hammer throwing is a gross skill
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What is a closed skill?
A skill which is not affected by the external environment and they are habitual. They are usually self-paced, for example, a gymnastic vault
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What is a discrete skill?
Skills that have a clear beginning and end and for it to be repeated it mist start again. For example, a gymnastic vault
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What type of skill is a trampoline sequence, discrete, serial or continuous?
Serial, because it is a number of discrete skills put together in a definite order
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Name an example of a continuous skill?
Cycling, breast stroke swimming or rowing.
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What is a self paced skill?
A skill where the performer is internally in control of when the movement starts and ends and the rate of which it is performed. For example, a javelin throw
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What is a simple skill?
Where little information has to be processed and few decisions are made. Timing and speed are not critical, e.g. running
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What is a skill high in organisation?
Movement skills where the sub-routines are very closely linked together and are very difficult to seperate without disrupting the skill. For example, the golf swing
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What is positive transfer?
When one skill helps the learning and performance of another
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Why do we classify skills?
It tells us how to teach the skills, how we can improve them and how we can practise
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What is part practice?
Working on perfecting isolated sub-routines and once they are perfected, they are put back into the full movement. For example, practising the leg action, strokes and body position in swimming before putting them back together
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What are the advantages and disadvantages of part practice?
Ads: reduces information load, reduces complexity, reduces fear if dangerous, success in parts motivates learner, good for skills low in organisation and serial. Dis ads: takes longer than others, transferring parts may be hard,learners can lose feel
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What is whole practice?
When the skill is learned its its complete form without being broken down into sub-routines. For example, a cartwheel or basketball dribble
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What are the advantages and disadvantages of whole practise?
Ads: good for skills high in organisation or continuous, allows learner to get the timing, helps learner understand timing and it can be quicker. Dis ads: Not suitable for complex or dangerous skills
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What is progressive practice?
Parts of a complex skill are practised in isolated and then put back together one by one until the whole skill is re-formed. For example, triple jump
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What are the advantages and disadvantages of progressive practice?
Ads: good for complex skills as it reduces information load, good for skills low in organisation and serial skills, helps flow of the skills as sub-routines are transfered better. Dis ads: not suitable for skills high in organisation
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What is whole/part whole practice?
When the learner attempts the skill then the teacher identifies weak parts and these are improved in isolation
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What are the advantages and disadvantages of whole/part whole practice?
Ads: the learner get the feel for the skill and the flow, the method is much faster as the areas that need improving are the only parts highlighted. Dis Ads: not suitible for highly organised or dangerous skills
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What are gross motor abilities?
Gross motor abilities are also known as physical proficiency abilities. They usually involve movement and are related to physical fitness
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Name 3 gross motor abilities?
Dynamic strength, static strength, explosive strength, stamina, extent flexibilty, dynamic flexibilty, co-ordination, trunk strength
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What are psychomotor abilities?
Abilities wich usually involve the processing of information, making decisions and putting these decisions into action. These are usually movements
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Name 3 psychomotor abilities?
Multi-limb co-ordination, response orientation, reaction time, speed of movement, manual dexterity, rate control, aiming
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How can abilities be developed in early childhood?
If children are given a wide range of experience, the oppertunity to practise, receivfe expert teaching, have access to facilities and have support from their family + role models
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are the two extremes of muscular involvement?

Back

Gross - Fine

Card 3

Front

What are the two extremes of environmental influence?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are two extremes of organisation?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the two extremes of difficulty?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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