Classification

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What is phylogenetic classification?
Phlyogenetic classifcation classifies organisms based on their evolutionary history, closely related organisms are grouped together.
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What do organisms in the same group have?
A more recent common ancestor with each other than the organisms not in their group.
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What will organisms have if they're closely related?
They'll typically show physical similarities.
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What are bigger groups split into?
Progressively smaller groups so the system is hierarchical.
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What is each grouping in the system called?
It's called a taxon and bigger taxa contain smaller taxa.
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What happens within each taxon?
Organisms are more similar to each other and more closely related than to organisms outside that taxon.
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What is the hierarchy of biological classification?
Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
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What is a kingdom?
There's 5 kingdoms and these include prokaryotae, protoctista, fungi, animalia and plantae.
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What happens in a phylum?
Organisms in each phyla have radically different body plans
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What happens in class?
Diversity within the phyla allows for a further division into classes
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What happens in order?
Each class is divided into orders of organisms that have additional features in common
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What happens in family?
At this level the differences are less obvious
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What happens in genus?
Each family is further sub-divided into genera
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What are taxa?
They're discreet, this means that something is either in one taxon or another, it can't be in more than one taxon.
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What does a phylogenetic classification system allow us?
To infer evolutionary relationships
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What is the largest taxon?
A domain is the largest taxon and all living things belong in one of the three domains. They were originally defined on the basis of rRNA base sequences.
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What are the three domains?
Eubacteria, Archae and Eukaryota
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What are eubacteria?
These are the familiar bacteria such as E.Coli and Salmonella, they are prokaryotes.
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What are archaea?
Archaea are bacteria, and often have unusual metabolism. They live in marginal habitats and are also prokaryotes.
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What are eukaryota?
Plantae, Animalia, Fungi and Protoctista.
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What are some factors of prokaryotae?
They have no membrane-bound organelles (that's how you'll recognize them), they are bacteria. Some examples include; E.coli, Salmonella species, Listeria species and Staphylococcus species.
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What are some factors of protoctista?
They're all different, no defining feature. They have some animal-like and plant-like features, a group of odd organisms. They're eukaryotes, have membrane-bound organelles. Some examples include; blue-green algae, protozoa, protophyta, slime moulds
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What are some factors of fungi?
Fungi are also eukaryote, the cells are multinucleate (they have many nuclei). They form long threads called hyphae and repoduce by spores. They're heterotrophs and often saprotrophs, they're important decomposers and recylcers of organic matter.
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What are some examples of fungi?
Mushrooms, Toadstools, Penicillium and Yeast.
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What are some factors of animalia?
They're eukaryotes. Animals develop from a blastula (a collection of 8 cells after fertiision of the egg). Common examples: Cat, Dog, Horse and Human
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What are some factors of plantae?
They're eukaryote. Plants develop from an embryo and there's two groups of plants, the flowering plants and the non-flowering plants. Flowering plants include: Daffodils, Roses, Grasses and Sunflowers. Non-flowering plants include Ferns, Mosses...
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What are the descriptions of the prokaryotae kingdom?
They're prokaryotic. They have a present cell wall, it's made up of peptidoglycan or murein. They're uni cellular. Their method of feeding is autotrophs and heterotrophs.
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What are the descriptions of the protoctista kingdom?
They're eukaryotic. They have an absent cell wall. They're uni cellular. Their method of feeding is autotraphs and heterotrophs.
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What are the descriptons of the fungi kingdom?
They're eukaryotic. They have a present cell wall, it's made up of chitin. They're uni and multi cullar. Their method of fooding is heterotrophs.
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What are the descriptions of the plantae kingdom?
They're eukaryotic. They have a present cell wall, it's made up of cellulose. They're multicellular. Their method of feeding is autotrophs.
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What are the descriptions of the plantae kingdom?
They're eukaryotic. They have an absent cell wall. They're multi cellular. Their method of fooding is heterotrophs.
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Card 2

Front

What do organisms in the same group have?

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A more recent common ancestor with each other than the organisms not in their group.

Card 3

Front

What will organisms have if they're closely related?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are bigger groups split into?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is each grouping in the system called?

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