Classical Civilisation: City Life: Athens

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What was Zeus responsible for?
He was the god of xenia, law and order, fate, and the weather.
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How was he depicted in art?
Very large man, mature, bearded often holding a sceptre, thunderbolt or eagle.
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What was Hera responsible for?
She was the goddess of marriage, childbirth, and commitment.
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How was she depicted in art?
She was portrayed on a throne near Zeus. There was often the attribute to peacocks, in whose tails were the eyes of Argus, guardian of Io.
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What was Demeter responsible for?
She was the goddess of harvest, agriculture, earth, seasons and fertility.
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How is she depicted in art?
Sitting as a solemn woman, wearing a wreath of braided ears of corn, pictured with symbolic attributes of fruits and a torch(representing her search for Persephone), with a snake(creature of the earth) and a pig(symbol of fertility).
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What was Poseidon responsible for?
He was the god of the sea, earthquakes, horses, floods, droughts, and rivers.
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How was he depicted in art?
Older male with curly hair and a beard. Being carried across the sea on a chariot pulled by hippocampus(horses that could ride the sea) holding a trident.
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What was Hephaistos responsible for?
He was the god of fire, metal, and crafts.
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How was he depicted in art?
Often portrayed assisting Zeus in the birth of Athena. Sometimes shown making the thunderbolt for Zeus. Often shown riding a donkey or a mule.
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What was Apollo responsible for?
He was the god of music, light, prophecy, poetry, and the sciences.
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How was he depicted in art?
Always young and naked(personification of what the Greeks found to be attractive and masculine). Always had some sort of musical instrument(lyre) and was normally holding a bow with a quiver of arrows.
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What was Artemis responsible for?
She was the goddess of childbirth, virgins, wilderness, wild animals, the moon, and the hunt.
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How was she depicted in art?
Often depicted as a huntress with her bow and arrows. She is often accompanied by wild animals such as a stag or a she bear.
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What was Athene responsible for?
She is the goddess of war, wisdom, arts and crafts.
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How was she depicted in art?
Often with an owl on her shoulder. Normally holding a spear with a gold crown pushed back to reveal her beauty. Normally dressed in full armour.
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What was Aphrodite responsible for?
She was the goddess of love, lust, beauty, pleasure, and procreation.
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How was she depicted in art?
Surrounded by a host of rather obscure goddesses, who personified the pleasures of life.
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What was Ares responsible for?
He was the god of war, violence, homicide, battle lust, civil order, and courage.
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How was he depicted in art?
Either a mature bearded man dressed in battle arms, or a nude beardless youth with a helm and a spear.
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What was Dionysus responsible for?
He was the god of wine, ritual, theatre, madness, and ecstasy.
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How was he depicted in art?
Robed and bearded wreathed in ivy. Sometimes a young nude holding a thyrsus, sometimes seen with Adrianne.
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What were the Maenads and Satyrs?
Dionysus's male and female companions(Satyrs being male, Maenads being female).
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How were they depicted in art?
Satyrs: strongly built with flat noses, large pointed ears, curly hair and beards with wreaths of vine or ivy circling their balding head. Maenads: Erratic frenzied women running in a forest, often tearing apart any animal they come across.
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What was Hermes responsible for?
He was the god of speed, travel, thieves, and commerce.
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How was he depicted in art?
Handsome, athletic youth with short curly hair. Commonly nude with a robe draped over his shoulder and arm, sometimes equipped with a winged cap.
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What was the function of a temple?
The temples were a gathering place for worship, though the worship did not occur within the temple itself, but outside by the altar. The temples served as homes for the gods/goddesses.
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What was significant about the placement of the altar?
The altar was placed axially in front of the temple. (This may be incorrect but) I believe the altar faced East, towards the rising sun.
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What was significant about the cult statue?
The cult statue was a statue, typically made from chryselephantine(gold and ivory), of the god which stood in the cella of the temple, facing east towards the altar. The god was said to have inhabited the statue and they were often very impressive.
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How were the temples used by worshippers?
The temples were used as homes for the gods. They were also where sacrifices would take place(not in the temple itself, but in the holy grounds). The temples were also used to store votive offerings.
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What was the purpose of ancient sacrifice?
To make offerings to the gods in the hopes they will be rewarded by them.
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What were the surroundings of a sacrifice?
The sacrifice would take place within the holy grounds of the temple to the god which the sacrifice was being held in honour of. The animal would be sacrificed on the altar placed axially in front of the temple.
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What were the first three steps taken in carrying out a sacrifice?
The chosen animal was cleaned, dressed in ribbons, and taken in procession to the temple. It would be placed on the altar and barley seeds and water would be poured over it's head to make it nod.
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What were the remaining steps taken in carrying out a sacrifice?
The animals' throat would be slit and the blood drained into a bowl. The entrails, especially the liver, would be extracted to see if the god approves, and then the sacrifice would become a feast for god and human alike.
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What was the significance of sacrificing to the gods?
The sacrifice was a way to thank the gods or ask something of the gods. Sacrifices were a way of communicating with the god in the hopes of either building a better reputation with the god or asking a favour of the god.
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How long did the Panathenaia last?
Eight days.
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Which set of contests kicked off the festival?
Rhapsodia contests and music contests, one for the men and one for the boys.
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Which set of contests were held on the second day?
The athletic contests for youths and boys.
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Who were the athletic contests held for on the third day?
Men.
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What was the fourth day of the festival devoted to?
Equestrian contests.
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What changed on the fifth day of the festival?
This was the beginning of the events of a narrowly Athenian interest, in which only local athletes competed, divided by tribe in most cases.
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What happened on the sixth day/night of the festival?
A nocturnal torch race through the streets of the city and the night festival on the acropolis, in which men and women sang hymns in honour of the gods.
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What was the seventh day of the festival called and why?
Hecatombion. It was the day of the great procession and sacrifice.
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How did the festival come to an end?
With various victory celebrations and the awarding of prizes to the winners.
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What do the Olympic Games and the Panathenaia have in common with regards to its participants?
Only those from Greece could take part.
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Why was the Panathenaia so important to the Athenian's?
It was held in honour of their patron god Athene. It was a spectacular display of Athens' wealth, power, and community spirit. The sacrifices held allowed the Athenian's to have meat in their diets.
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What role did politics and religion have in the Panathenaia?
Religion: The Panathenaia was a religious festival as it was held in honour of Athene in celebration of her birthday. Politics: It was also a celebration of being Athenian and was an occasion where Athens could assert power over allied cities.
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What was the Parthenon Frieze?
The frieze was around the parthenon temple on the acropolis and is believed to have depicted the procession. It provides historical evidence as to what took place during the festival.
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Who took part in the City Dionysia?
Playwrights, dancers, singers, choreographers, sponsors. Anyone within the ten Greek tribes could go to spectate and enjoy the dramatic performances.
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What happened the night before the festival begins?
A torch light procession where a wooden statue of Dionysus was led into the city.
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What happened on the first day of the festival?
A grand procession where animals were led to the temple of Dionysus and sacrificed.
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On the second, third, and fourth days, in what order were the plays performed?
Three tragedies and a satyr play were performed in the morning. After lunch, comedies would be performed.
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What happened on the second day, which doesn't happen on any other day, before the plays were performed?
An opening ceremony in the theatre where all the money that had been donated to Athens was displayed and the young boys whose fathers had died fighting for Athens paraded into the theatre.
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The City Dionysia had a democratic system of judging. How many names did each tribe submit?
Ten names.
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When do the tribes submit the names?
Before the festival begins.
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At the beginning of the festival, how many names are chosen at random from out of how many urns?
One name is chosen at random from each of the ten urns.
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On the fifth day, after the judges wrote down the names of the playwrights in order of merit, how many tablets were were put in an urn?
Ten names.
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What happened last?
The archon drew five tablets from the urn and the playwright with the most votes won.
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Who was the City Dionysia held in honour of?
Dionysus.
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How did participants honour the god?
Sacrifices were made at a grand procession the night before the festival.
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In what ways did the City Dionysia benefit Athens politically?
Made Athens a reason for tourists to flock to the city, bringing and influx of tourists and money to Athens.
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How many actors would perform in a typical tragedy?
Three.
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Would actors play one role each or did they multi-role?
Multi-role.
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In which style of play would actors typically play gods, goddesses, kings, queens, slaves, and soldiers?
Tragedies.
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What characters would actors typically play in a comedy?
Simple country farmers, smooth city dwellers, and grumpy old men.
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Why were ridiculous, oversized masks used in comic plays?
They were designed to make the audience laugh and accompany the slapstick style of comedy performed.
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Were masks used in both styles of performance or just comedic plays?
Both. Tragic masks usually had serious and thoughtful expressions.
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How many chorus members were in tragic plays and how many were in comedic plays?
Fifteen in tragedy. Twenty-four in comedy.
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What did a chorus member contribute to the performance?
They danced and sang in between scenes which gave actors time to change in the scene. They can sometimes give audience background and contextual knowledge about what is happening in the play and sometimes create a certain mood and built tension.
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In what style of play did actors wear short tunics and tights and why were they heavily padded?
Comedies. So the actors could roll around the stage in a slapstick fashion.
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Were the long robes worn in a tragic play decorated? If so how?
Yes. In colourful patchwork patterns brightly coloured so they could be seen in a large theatre.
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What could sometimes be seen in the chorus of a comedic play which could add humour?
Animals such as birds and frogs.
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What shape was the theatre?
Semi-circlular.
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What was the seating area in the theatre called?
Theatron.
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How many people could the theatre seat?
Fifteen thousand.
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The acting space itself was divided into four parts. What were they called?
Skene, proskene, orchestra and paradoi.
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The orchestra was where the chorus sung and acted, but what also occurred here?
Sacrifices, as in it was the alter to Dionysus.
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What was the paradoi?
The entrance and pathways for the chorus and audience.
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What was the proskene?
A raised stage.
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What was the skene?
A wooden building behind the proskene where the actors would change and props would be stored.
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What was the name of the device used to hoist actors into the air?
Mekhane.
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What was the ekkulema?
A spinning circle which was used to represent what was going on inside.
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Thunder, horses hooves, rain, and crackling flames are all examples of what?
Sound effects.
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How did the Athenians create scenery?
By painting scenes of forests and palaces on the skene.
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What were a man's main responsibilities as a kyrios within the household?
Earn money for the family, keeping the family fed, supervise slaves, promote the name of the family, make contracts in the gymnasium, move up the social and political hierarchy, have the final say on important matters.
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Were the kyrios and kyria equal within the household?
No. Men were the masters of the house.
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What were a kyrias roles within a household?
Sewing, weaving, domestic duties.
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What restrictions did women face in the oikos?
They were not allowed to make any money or own property of their own(they were only allowed enough money to feed the family for a week), they were not allowed to go out in public unless they were with a male and completely covered, they had no say.
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What was a symposium?
A male drinking party.
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How were people informed of symposiums?
The master of the household of which was organising the party would send their slaves to deliver smart invitations to the homes of the guests invited.
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Were women invited to the symposiums? Were any exceptions made?
Women were not allowed to attend symposiums. However, the men would hire female dancers and singers as forms of entertainment for the evening.
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How else would guests entertain themselves?
They would all sing songs, play drinking games, and discuss philosophy.
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Why were symposiums held?
They allowed the men of the house to make social, political, and commercial connections and gave the opportunity to find a suitable marriage match for children.
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What was the andron?
Male quarters of the house.
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What was the name of the women's area of the house?
Gynaikon.
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Where was the gynaikon located in the house?
Upstairs at the back of the house.
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In which room would a symposium be held?
Dining room.
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What would the men dine on?
Laying on couches.
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What rooms would be found on the lower story of an Athenian house?
Courtyard, store room, dining room, kitchen, andron, slaves room(male), bedroom, crafts room.
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What rooms would be found on the upper story of an Athenian house?
Bedroom, gynaikon, slaves room(female), and another bedroom.
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What would you find in the store room?
Amphoras of oil, fruits, and wine.
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Would the slaves room be elaborately furnished?
No. The slaves would have very little furniture.
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What would take place in the gynaikon?
Women would carry out most of their domestic duties in the gynaikon.
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Which slaves were of higher value?
Skilled slaves.
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What duties would a typical domestic slave have to perform?
They would be responsible for supervising the children, wet nursing, sewing, weaving, cooking, cleaning, collect water, farming, answering the door, and the family shopping.
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How would people become slaves?
They could be prisoners of war, imprisoned by pirates, sold by their parents, or born into slavery.
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How could a slave become free?
A master could free the slave or a slave could be killed before getting the chance to be free.
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How were slaves purchased?
Through auction, which was held in the town centre.
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What jobs would an educated slave be expected to carry out?
They could be expected to work in the fathers shop performing skills such as accounting or tutoring the children.
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What is the main difference between modern education and ancient education?
There is no state education. It is the parents decision as to whether they wish to educate the children or not.
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Boys and girls both went to school. True or false?
False. Most young girls did not go to school as it was not looked upon as being necessary.
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There are three main areas of education. What are they?
Grammastistes(the study of reading, writing, and basic arithmetic), Kitharstes(the study of music: playing instruments and reciting poetry in iambic heptameter), and paidotribes(the study of physical education: athletics).
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What poets work was crucial in primary education and why?
Homer. The study of the Iliad and the Odyssey taught boys how to behave accordingly.
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Why was music crucial in boys' studies?
It was believed that if a boy could not play an instrument or recite poetry then they were not educated, so it was very important for their reputation.
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What was the palaistra and why was it significant in education?
The palaistra was where studies were held.
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What is a paidagogos?
An educated slave who escorts a boy to and from school(carrying bags), helps with homework, and updates the father on the sons progress.
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