Classical conditioning.

Classical Conditioning- Watson (1920).
Involves association of a naturally occuring stimulus (unlearned) with another stimulus (learned) to bring about a learned response.
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Example of physiological stimuli and response.
Smell of food (S) = Salivation (R). Unknow situations (S) = Fear and apprehention (R).
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Classical Conditioning.
Any stimuli (CS0 which becomes associated/paired with any unlearned stimuli, which will eventually lead to a new learned response (CR). S+S= Learned response (CR). E.g. Bell (S) + Smell of food (S) = Salivation at the sound of the bell.
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Before learning or conditioning.
Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) leads to an Unconditioned Response (UCR).
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During learning or conditioning (Acquisition stage).
Conditioned Stimulus (CS) introduced and is paired with the Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) leads to an Unconditioned Response (UCR).
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After learning or conditioning.
Conditioned Stimulus (CS) brings about Conditioned Response (CR) in the absence of the Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS).
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Classical Conditioning equation.
UCS = UCR (Before learning). CS + UCS = UCR (During learning). CS = CR (After learning).
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When to pair up the 2 stimuli.
For learning to be most effective- during the acquisition phase, the Conditioned Stimulus (Learned) should be introduced just prior to the Unconditioned Stimulus (Unlearned) by 1/2 second.
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Generalisation.
The conditioned response transfers in a weaker form spontaneously to the stimuli that are similar to but from the original Conditioned Stimulus. E.g. A fear of nurses could be generalised to a fear of doctors.
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Discrimination.
Involves learning the difference between two or more stimuli- learn that differences amongst stimuli are important- learn to respond to one stimulus and not respond to a different stimuli. E.g a fear of nurses will not cause a fear of doctors.
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Extinction.
If the Conditioned Stimulus is presented without the original response the Conditioned Response will eventually stop. It is not unlearned- learn to inhibit or suppress the Conditioned Response- Spontaneous Recovery. E.g. a fear of nurses will fade.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Example of physiological stimuli and response.

Back

Smell of food (S) = Salivation (R). Unknow situations (S) = Fear and apprehention (R).

Card 3

Front

Classical Conditioning.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Before learning or conditioning.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

During learning or conditioning (Acquisition stage).

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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