Class Identity

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  • Created by: Katharine
  • Created on: 15-04-14 18:23
SOCIAL CLASS
Relates to the ways of life of DIFFERENT SOCIAL GROUPS which can include economic position and culture
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WORKING CLASS
Characteristics: Physical labour, traditional gender roles, extended families, immediate gratification, restricted language code
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BLUE COLLAR JOB
Associated with WC - physical/manual labour
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IMMEDIATE GRATIFICATION
Associated with WC - NOT WAITING to obtain what one wants, i.e. not saving money
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MARSHALL ET AL (1988)
Survey - Manual workers still AWARE of class based issues. Distribution of WEALTH = UNFAIR
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BRITISH SOCIAL ATTITUDES SURVEY (2006)
Since 60s, no decline in proportion of people identifying with social class. DECLINE in people IDENTIFYING with WC
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CHARLESWORTH (1999)
Deprived WC in Rotherum - UNEMPLOYED expressed LITTLE INTEREST in WC identity, associating it with low status, disrespect & helplessness
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SKEGGS (1997)
12 WC women in caring profession - DISTANCED themselves from traditional WC NORMS & VALUES
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BLACKSTONE & MORTIMER
WC find it DIFFICULT to play an active role in children's EDUCATION because they have less knowledge of education system
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CATER & COLEMAN (2006)
Risk of becoming a TEENAGE MOTHER was 10x higher for a girl from an unskilled family background
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MAC AND GHAILL (1994)
Different types of MASCULINITIES in school associated with class. MACHO lads = WC
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BRAH (1999)
WC identity = important part of the group of white skinheads
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WILLIS (1977)
WC boys encouraged to FOLLOW MALE ROLE MODELS (gaining employment in same factories/industries)
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MEDHURST (1999)
A group of MC students thought 'The Royle Family' was an ACCURATE PORTRAYAL of WC life
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BRUNDSON (1997)
MC saw SATELLITE DISHES as a symbol of WC
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DEVINE ET AL (2005)
50 interviews, doctors & teachers in Manchester - Most of sample DIDN'T REFER to class in interview despite professions being associated with MC. New form of WC - WORK is not DEFINING feature of life
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BRAVERMAN
PROLETARIANISATION - White collar jobs lost social & economical advantages
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SAVAGE ET AL (2005)
Interviews in Manchester - Many men in MANUAL LABOUR, but most were HOMEOWNERS, and owned their own cars. 21% had clear view of their class
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ZWEIG (1960)
EMBOURGEOISEMENT - WC begun to adopt economic & cultural capital lifestyle of MC
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MIDDLE CLASS
Characteristics: Professional work, deferred gratification, educational achievement, elaborate language code
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WHITE COLLAR JOB
Associated with MC - Professional or office-based job
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DEFERRED GRATIFICATION
Associated with MC - WAITING in order to obtain what one wants
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BOURDIEU
Recognised CULTURAL/ECONOMIC/SOCIAL CAPITAL
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CULTURAL CAPITAL
Knowledge, skills & interests which result in more power and status
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ECONOMIC CAPITAL
Economical resources which result in more power and status
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SOCIAL CAPITAL
Having contacts/networks which result in more power and status
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WYNNE (1988)
MC estate in Cheshire - MC had economic, cultural and social capital
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REAY (1998)
MC mothers are able to INFLUENCE children's primary SCHOOLING more than WC mothers
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POWER ET AL (2003)
Shows a relationship between children from MC backgrounds gaining places at PUBLIC SCHOOLS and attending ELITE UNIVERSITIES
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BOURDIEU (1990)
MC students: Univeristy = like 'a fish in water'. WC students: University = isolating and daunting
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BRUCE
Cults such as SCIENTOLOGY are mostly MC as they fulfil spiritual needs for people with little financial pressure
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UPPER CLASS
Characteristics: Ascribed status, significant landowners, owners of industry and commerce, cultural/economic/social capital
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SOCIAL CLOSURE
Associated with UC - The desire to keep way of life PROTECTED & EXCLUSIVE
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SUPER RICH/SUPER CLASS
New category/sub-category: newcomers with new wealth e.g. Jay Z, David Beckham etc.
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SOCIAL MOBILITY
MOVEMENT over time from one class to another
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BERNSTEIN
RESTRICTED LANGUAGE CODE - More vague, jargon. ELABORATE LANGUAGE CODE - Expanded
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TRADITIONAL MARXIST VIEW
Believe ECONOMIC differences cause CLASS DIVISION, blame CAPITALISM
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CAPITALISM
An economical system - allows private businesses to make as much money as they want
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COMMUNISM
Marxists support this - EQUALITY for all (no divisions)
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BOURGEOISIE
The UPPER/MIDDLE class
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PROLETARIAT
The WORKING class
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MARX
Religion maintains class division. Religion = 'OPIUM OF THE PEOPLE' - encouraging people to accept their position in the social hierarchy as being God's will
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NEO MARXISTS
Class division also maintained by individuals' acceptance of norms and values taught by society
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HEGEMONY
The ACCEPTANCE of dominant ideology
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POSTMODERNIST VIEW
Believe CHOICE has enabled SOCIAL MOBILITY therefore class has FRAMENTED
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PICK AND MIX
Post-modernists: Ability to CHOOSE from different CHARACTERISTICS traditionally associated with one class
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LYON (1994)
Post-modern world is a consumer society. Expansion of POPULAR CULTURE results in DECLINE of traditional CLASS CULTURE
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FUNCTIONALIST VIEW
MERITOCRATIC society - Position in society is based on effort and ability. DIVISION OF LABOUR is necessary for a functional society
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DIVISION OF LABOUR
People in society do different jobs
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LABELLING
To LABEL an individual or group (which can lead to a SELF-FULFILLING PROPHECY)
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SELF-FULFILLING PROPHECY
Accepting a label and CONFORMING/living up to that label
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Characteristics: Physical labour, traditional gender roles, extended families, immediate gratification, restricted language code

Back

WORKING CLASS

Card 3

Front

Associated with WC - physical/manual labour

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Associated with WC - NOT WAITING to obtain what one wants, i.e. not saving money

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Survey - Manual workers still AWARE of class based issues. Distribution of WEALTH = UNFAIR

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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