Class differences in achievement (1) external factors

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Adonis and Pollard
private education as a major way in whcih class privileges are transmitted from generation to gereration.
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Internal factors
these aee factors within schools and the education system, such as interactions beetween peupils and teachers and inequalities between schools.
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External factors
these are factors outside the education system, such as influence of home and family background and wider society.
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J.W.B Douglas
found working-class pupils scored lower on tests of ability than middle-class pupils. He argues this is because working-class parents are less likely to support childrens intellectual development through reading/ educationa activities at home.
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Bernstein and Young
Found the way mothers think about and choose toys has an influence on their childrens interllecutal development. Middle-class mothers are more likely to choose toya that encourage thinking and reasoning skills to prepare child for school.
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Bereiter and Engelmann
Language used in lowe-class homes is deficient. Communicate using gestures, single words or disjointed phrases. Thos results in the children failling tp develop the necessary language skills and are therefor unable to take opportunities given by scho
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Bereiter and Engelmann
Restricted=used by working-class, limited vocab, based on short unfinished grammatically simple senctences. Elaborate code= used by middle-class, wider vocab based on longer gramattically more complex scentences.
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Douglas
working-class parents placed less value on education, were less ambitious for their children, gave them less encouragment and took less interest in their education.
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Feinstein
working-class parents lack of interest was the main reason for their childrens under-achievement and was even more important than financial hardhsip or factors within the schol Middle-class parents provide motivation, discipline and support.
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Hyman
values and beleifs of lower-class subcultures are 'slef-imposed barriers' to education and career success. Lower-class beleive they have less opportunities to achieve high status jobs, they see no point in education. Less likely to go onto higher ed.
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Sugarman
Fatalism, Collectivism, Immdeiate gratification, Present-time orientation.
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Niel Keddie
cltural deprivation as a 'myth', sees it as a victim-blaming explanation.
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Troyna and Williams
The problem is not the childs language but the schools attitude towards it. Teacher have a 'speach hierachy': label middle-class at top and working-class at the bottom.
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Blackstne and Martimore
WC parents attended less parents evenings not because of a lack of interest but they had to work.
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Material deprevation
poverty and lack of material necessities such as adequate housing and income.
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Flaherty
money problems in the family were a significant factor in younger childrens non-attendence at school.
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Howard - diet and health
young people from poorer homes have lower intakes of energy, vitamins and minerals. Poor nutrition affects health eg weakening the immune system abd lowering childs energy levels. Results in absence at school.
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Wilkinson
Among 10 year olds, lower the social class the higher rates of hyperactivity, anxiety and conduct disorders all of which are likely to have a negative effect on the childs edcuation.
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Bull- Financial support and the costs of education
Lack of finacial support means children from poor families have to do without equipent and miss out on experiences that would enhance achievemnt. 'COST OF FREE SCHOOLING'.
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Tanner et al - study in Oxford
costs for iteams such as transport, uniform, books, computers, calculators and sports, music and art equipment places a heavy burden on poor families.
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Ridge
.
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Mortimore and Whitty
material inequalities have a greater effect on achievemnt than school factors.
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Robinson
tackiling child poverty would be the most effective way to boost achievement.
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Bourdieu: 3 types of capital
Cultural capital, Educational and Economic capital.
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Cultural capital
Refers to the knowledge, attitudes, values, language, tastes and abilities of the middle class.
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Educational and Economic capital
Middle-class children with cultural capital are better equiped to gain qualifications. But middle-class parents can convert economic capital into educational capital by sending child to a private school.
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Leech and Campos - study in Coventry
Middle-class parents can afford a house in the chatchment area of a school placed high in the league tables.- 'selection by mortgage'.
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Sullivan
Questionnaire on 465 pupils in 4 schools, assess their cultural capital. Found those who read complex fiction and watched serious TV documentaries developed a wider vocab and greater cultural knowledge, indicating greater cultural capital.= GCSE
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Gewirtz: marketiation and parental choice.
14 London schools, interviews with teachers and parents and secondary data such as school documents. Found difference in economic and cultural capital lead to class difference.
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Privileged- skilled choosers
Professional middle-class parents who used their economic and cultural capital to gain educational capital for their children.
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Disconnected-local choosers
Working-class parents whose choices were restricted by their lack of economic and cultural capital.
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Semi-skilled choosers.
Working-class but unlike disconnected-local choosers they were ambitious for their children.
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Whitty
Markitsation has not k
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

these aee factors within schools and the education system, such as interactions beetween peupils and teachers and inequalities between schools.

Back

Internal factors

Card 3

Front

these are factors outside the education system, such as influence of home and family background and wider society.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

found working-class pupils scored lower on tests of ability than middle-class pupils. He argues this is because working-class parents are less likely to support childrens intellectual development through reading/ educationa activities at home.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Found the way mothers think about and choose toys has an influence on their childrens interllecutal development. Middle-class mothers are more likely to choose toya that encourage thinking and reasoning skills to prepare child for school.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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