Class, Age & Religion

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Karl Marx (1844)
Religion in capitalist societies as the 'opium of the masses'. He saw it as acting like a drug by giving its followers a false sense of well-being and distorting reality. Marx believed that religion started in the subject classes
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Otto Maduro (1982)
Argues that where religious movements become a radical force for change they can become dominated by the subject class. E.G. the liberation theology movement amongst Catholics in Latin America was largely supported by the poor
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Walls (1984)
Notes that denominations are respectable organisations and therefore tend not to attract the lowest classes. Appeal to most to the upper working class and the lower middle class.
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Stark and Bainbridge (1985)
Client cults appeal to the already successful and affluent who want to become more successful. Other cult movements are similar to sects and tend to attract the disadvantaged or relatively deprived.
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Paul Heelas (1996)
The New Age tends to appeal to the middle class (and particularly women)
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Steve Bruce (2002)
Believes that the New Age appeals to those in expressive professions such as the media, teaching and counselling because they believe in self-improvement and the New Age is linked to the human potential movement.
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Brierley (2005)
In 1979, the average age of the church-goer was 37 but by 2005 it was 49. In 2005, nearly 60% of churches had nobody attending between the ages of 15 and 19
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Heelas et al (2005)
Found that most of those involved with the New Age movement are middle-aged or older
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David Voas and Alasdair Crockett (2005)
Three reasons for the preponderance of older people participating in religion: secularisation, period effect (a cohort) and socialisation.
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Heelas et al (2005)
New Age beliefs in the holistic milieu are growing rapidly despite few young people being involved with it
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Argues that where religious movements become a radical force for change they can become dominated by the subject class. E.G. the liberation theology movement amongst Catholics in Latin America was largely supported by the poor

Back

Otto Maduro (1982)

Card 3

Front

Notes that denominations are respectable organisations and therefore tend not to attract the lowest classes. Appeal to most to the upper working class and the lower middle class.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Client cults appeal to the already successful and affluent who want to become more successful. Other cult movements are similar to sects and tend to attract the disadvantaged or relatively deprived.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The New Age tends to appeal to the middle class (and particularly women)

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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