HideShow resource information
Mackintosh and Mooney - Upper Class
Key feature of the upper class is social closure.
1 of 52
Scott - Upper Class
Old Boy Network/Social Closure
2 of 52
Bourdieu - Middle Class
Bourdieu suggests that school helps to socialise people into middle class identities through the use of role models, imitation and sanctions.
3 of 52
Goodwin - Middle Class
Talked about yummy mummies
4 of 52
Saunders - Middle Class
Conspicuous Consumption. The media targets the middle class as they are the group with the highest disposable income.
5 of 52
Wright - Middle Class
Middle class occupy a contradictory class position.
6 of 52
Hutton - Working Class
Decline in working class communities has eroded working class identity.
7 of 52
Willis - Working Class
12 WC boys, formed anti school subculture. "Having a laff" became the most important thing about school. Father played a role model for working class boys.
8 of 52
Mac an Ghail - Working Class
Noted boys from working class backgrounds followed their Fathers into manual labour. Named as macho lads because for these boys, the ability to perform heavy and physical labor shaped their WC identities.
9 of 52
Murray - Underclass
Claims that Underclasses are lazy and workshy. He suggests it is their own fault that they are in this position due to failure and criminality.
10 of 52
Jordan - Underclass
Disagrees with Murray, most of the Underclass would love to work if they had the chance.
11 of 52
Paluski and Waters - Changes in CI
We are now defined by what we buy, not what we do.
12 of 52
Offe - Changes in CI
Fewer and fewer individuals share a common experience of full time work.
13 of 52
Skeggs - Changes in CI
Women have instrumental attitudes towards work.
14 of 52
Oakley - Gender Identity
4 processes of gender socialisation: MANIPULATION, Encouraging or discouraging gender appropriate behavior. CANALISATION, Toys and play. Verbal Appellations and Domestic Activities.
15 of 52
McRobbie - Gender Identity
Investigated the absense of girls in the study of youth subcultures. 1) Research ignored the girls, 2) Bedroom Culture
16 of 52
Billington - Gender Identity
Argues that a Women's identity is defined by their ability to be seen as feminine and attractive.
17 of 52
Ferguson - Gender Identity
Conducted analysis of Women's magazines and found that they were based around a 'cult of femininity'. (Caring, family, marriage, appearance)
18 of 52
Mitsos and Browne - Gender Identity
Reasons why boys do less well than girls in education. Teachers less strict with boys, labelled them as 'disruptive'.
19 of 52
Skelton - Gender Identity
Argues that the 'hidden curriculum' is responsible for perpetuating gender differences in subject choice.
20 of 52
Kelly - Gender Identity
Suggested two reasons why science is seen as being a more masculine subject, 1) Pictures in text books: male dominated. 2) Male dominated classrooms.
21 of 52
Willis - Gender Identity
Argued that the jobs were a key source of identity for WC Fathers and sons.
22 of 52
Mac an Ghaill - Gender Identity
Working class men are experiencing a 'crisis of mascunality'.
23 of 52
Weeks - Sexual Identity
Points out not many would say "I am heterosexual", but to say "I am gay" makes a statement about who you are.
24 of 52
Plummer - Sexual Identity
'Homosexual career', where a homosexual male will seek out others and join a subculture in which stereotypical homosexual characteristics are accepted.
25 of 52
McCormack - Sexual Identity
Researched the decline of homophobia in youth settings.
26 of 52
McIntosh - Sexual Identity
Argues that once a male has accepted the label of "homosexuality", he will start to fulfill the stereotypical homosexual expectations.
27 of 52
Rich - Sexual Identity
Argues that Women's sexuality is oppressed by men, through marriages, sexual violence and **** and the sexual objectification of women.
28 of 52
Cashmore and Troyna - Immigration
Note that these migrants respond to racism by asserting their own ethnic identities (turning inwards).
29 of 52
James - Immigration
Notes how experience of racism unified all black people regardless of their background. They shared the label of being 'black'.
30 of 52
Hebdige - Immigration
Suggests that although Rastafarianism was seen as a religion in Jamaica, In the UK, it was adopted as a subculture by young Jamaican migrants.
31 of 52
Ghuman - Asian Ethnic Identities
Found that tradition, religion and family values played an important part in the upbringing of Asians in the UK.
32 of 52
Anwar - Asian Ethnic Identities
Found that the family can be a source of conflict for some Asian children, particularly around the issues of western clothes, arranged marriage and freedom.
33 of 52
Driver and Ballard - Asian Ethnic Identities
Argue that Asian families place a great value of their children's education.
34 of 52
Archer and Francis - Asian Ethnic Identities
Suggest that cultural factors are important in explaining the success of British - Chinese students. Educational success is part of their identity. Laddish behavior doesn't ruin their commitment to school.
35 of 52
Coard - Asian Discrimination
The curriculum is based around one particular cultural view point while ignoring others.
36 of 52
Gillborn - Asian Discrimination
Argues that teachers are racist towards black boys. Suggests that black males are seen as a threat and therefore label them. Self fulfilling prophecy.
37 of 52
Jhally - Asian Discrimination
Argues that ethnic minorities were either ignored or represented in a stereotyped way in the British media from 70s until 90s.
38 of 52
Alexander - Asian Discrimination
Supports Jhally and suggests that Asian youths in East London have been unfairly treated by police and the media.
39 of 52
Sewell - Ethnic Identities
Suggested that the media create role models which promote hyper masculinity, Afro Caribbean boys imitate these role models.
40 of 52
Postmodernists - Changes in Ethnic Identities
Argues that the contemporary UK is becoming increasingly mutlicultural.
41 of 52
Les Back - Changes in Ethnic Identities
Noted that Black, white and Asian youths all shared friendships, fashion, music and spoke the same slang in council estates in London.
42 of 52
Gill - Changes in Ethnic Identities
Carried out a survey of British Asian and identified a number of them as Blasian. They adopted black styles and music combined with their Asian culture.
43 of 52
Johal - Changes in Ethnic Identities
Studied British Asians and found that they adopted an Asian Identity when with their parents but a white identity when with their white peers at school. Refers to this as code switching and white mask when with peers.
44 of 52
Burdsey - Changes in Ethnic Identities
Studied British Asian footballers, found that they had dual ethnicity, their role and status as footballers had been the dominant part of their identity.
45 of 52
Anderson - National Identity
Argues that a 'nation' is an 'imagined community', so a national identity is socially constructed through symbols such as the flag and anthem.
46 of 52
Phillips et al - National Identity
Argue the National Curriculum supports the ideology of nationalism. History lessons create a national identity.
47 of 52
Schuden - National Identity
British people socialised into a national identity through: Common language, National Curriculum, Big events and Symbols.
48 of 52
Sardar - National Identity
Suggests that the world is in the middle of a global identity crisis, in which many of the old divides such as East vs West have broken down.
49 of 52
Kumar - National Identity
Unlike the Scots, Welsh and Irish, the English find it hard to say who they are, and that the English national identity is hard to find.
50 of 52
Hewitt - National Identity
Britain has seen a 'white backlash' from the white working classes. White pupils feel victimized and blamed.
51 of 52
Hall - National Identity
Suggests that countries may display 3 different reactions to globalisation. 1) Cultural Homogenization - accepting it, Cultural Hybridity - Take in some parts of it but still individual cultures exist. 3) Cultural resistance.
52 of 52

Other cards in this set

Card 2


Old Boy Network/Social Closure


Scott - Upper Class

Card 3


Bourdieu suggests that school helps to socialise people into middle class identities through the use of role models, imitation and sanctions.


Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4


Talked about yummy mummies


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


Conspicuous Consumption. The media targets the middle class as they are the group with the highest disposable income.


Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards


No comments have yet been made

Similar Sociology resources:

See all Sociology resources »See all Identities resources »