Class differences in Achievement

HideShow resource information
What are Cultural factors? (Give an example)
Class differences in norms and values (socialisation, attitudes to education, speech codes etc)
1 of 28
What are Material factors? (Give an example)
Physical necessities of life (adequate housing, diet and income)
2 of 28
What do Cultural deprivation theorists see 3 factors responsible for w/c under-achievement?
Language, parents' education and working-class subculture
3 of 28
Why might w/c children be at a disadvantage going into school? (toys and activities)
Their parents are less likely to give their children educational toys, practise brain-stimulating skills or read to them. But m/c parents would = w/c disadvantaged
4 of 28
Which code do the w/c use? (Bernstein)
Restricted code
5 of 28
What is typical of the restricted code?
less analytic, more descriptive, limited vocabulary, simple sentences, more gestures
6 of 28
What code do the m/c use? (Bernstein)
Elaborated code
7 of 28
What is typical of the elaborated code?
more analytic, wide vocabulary, complex sentences, spell out their meanings explicitly
8 of 28
Why would people who use the restricted code be at a disadvantage?
The elaborated code is uses in education, by teachers, exams, textbooks. Giving middle class an advantage.
9 of 28
Who argues that the parent's own education is the most important factor affecting children's achievement?
Feinstein
10 of 28
What is the typical parenting style of a m/c child?
consistent discipline, high expectations, active learning and exploration
11 of 28
What is the typical parenting style of a w/c child? (what would this lead to?)
inconsistent discipline, meaning poorer motivation and problems interacting with teachers
12 of 28
Why does parents' language effect education?
The way parents communicate affects children's cognitive development
13 of 28
What are the three aspects of the working-class subculture?
Immediate gratification, Fatalism, Low value on education
14 of 28
What is immediate gratification?
Wanting rewards now rather than being wiling to make sacrifices and working for future rewards
15 of 28
What is fatalism?
A belief that 'whatever will be, will be'. w/c children don't think they can improve their position through their own efforts
16 of 28
What is low value on education?
Hyman argues the working class don't value education (and don't believe they'll benefit from it)
17 of 28
What could be some criticisms of deprivation theory?
Ignores the importance of material factors like poverty, ignores the impact of schools, blames the victim for their failure
18 of 28
What are three examples of material deprivation?
poor housing, poor diet, low income
19 of 28
Bourdieu argues m/c pupils are more successful than w/c. What are the two capitals to blame for this?
Economic and cultural
20 of 28
What school factors are to blame for underachievement?
labelling, self fulfilling prophecy, streaming and pupil subcultures
21 of 28
What are labels? (Who argues them?)
meanings or definitions we attach to someone e.g.. 'bright', 'motivated''
22 of 28
What is the self-fulfilling prophecy?
A prediction made about something or someone that then becomes true because it has been made: 'he's bound to fail... goes on to fail'
23 of 28
What is streaming?
Putting all pupils with the same 'label' in the same class or 'stream' them. e.g., clever kids go into top classes, 'thick' ones int he bottom ones.
24 of 28
Which sociologist describes streaming as 'differentiation'?
Lacey
25 of 28
What is a pupil subculture?
Pro-school - usually m/c, accept school's values, respect teachers and do well. anti school subcultures - reject school's values, dislike school, sabotage school life.
26 of 28
What did Ingram find about 'fitting in'?
grammar school boys found this half, they experiences tension between their neighbourhood and their m/c school.
27 of 28
What Evans find about self-exclusion from success?
successful w/c girls faced hidden barriers, their identity would not fit in with elite universities
28 of 28

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are Material factors? (Give an example)

Back

Physical necessities of life (adequate housing, diet and income)

Card 3

Front

What do Cultural deprivation theorists see 3 factors responsible for w/c under-achievement?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Why might w/c children be at a disadvantage going into school? (toys and activities)

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Which code do the w/c use? (Bernstein)

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Sociology resources:

See all Sociology resources »See all Education resources »