1. What did Sugarman (1970) say were the four main aspects of working class subculture that act like a barrier to education achievement?
- multiculturalism, fatalism, gratification and future-time orientation
- fatalism, multiculturalism, sacrifice and present-time orienation
- fatalism, collectivism, immediate gratification and present-time orientation
- adaptation, collectivism and present-time orientation
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2. What is the elaborated code?
- used by working class. Has a short vocab, slang, grammatically correct sentences
- used by the middle class. Has a wider vocab and is based on longer, grammatically more complex sentences
- used by the lower class. Has a shorter vocab and is based on longer, grammatically more complex sentences
- used by the upper class. Longer sentences, context bound, grammatically incorrec
3. Who identified the different language spoke by the different classes?
- Berstein (1975)
- Young (1967)
- Feinstein (2008)
- Douglas (1964)
4. What are internal factors?
- factors within the home
- factors outside the workplace
- factors within education system
- factors outside the hospital
5. What gives the upper class an advantage when it comes to good education?
- able to buy fashion magazines
- able to buy clothes
- able to buy resources/books
- able to buy laptops and phones