CLA speech terminology

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Child Directed Speech (CDS)
people speaking to babies and young children use specific language features, modifying language to be simple and engaging
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pre-verbal stage - vegetative
0-4 months, sound of discomfort or reflexive actions
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pre-verbal stage - cooing
4-7 months, comfort sounds
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pre-verbal stage - babbling
6-12 months, repeated patterns of consonant and vowel sounds
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pre-verbal stage - proto-words
9-12 months, word-like vocalisations; these don't match real words but are consistent (reduplicated monosyllables and lexis with implied meanings)
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holophrastic/one word stage
12-18 months, one word utterances
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two-word stage
18-24 months, two-word combinations
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telegraphic
24-36 months, three and more words combined
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post-telegraphic stage
36+ months, more grammatically complex combinations
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deletion
omitting the final consonant sound in words - do(g), cu(p)
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substitution
substituting one sound for another: 'pip' for 'ship'
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addition
adding an extra vowel sound to the ends of words, creating a CVCV pattern - 'doggie'
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assimilation
changing one consonant or vowel sound for another ('b' for 'd')
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reduplication
repeating a whole syllable
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consonant cluster reductions
consonant clusters can be difficult to articulate, so children reduce them to smaller units - 'pider' instead of 'spider'
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deletion of unstressed syllables
omitting the opening syllable in polysyllabic words 'nana' for 'banana'
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plosives
created when the airflow is blocked - b, d, g, t, p, k
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fricatives
created when the airflow is only partially blocked
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affricatives
created by putting plosives and affricatives together
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nasals
created when air is moving through the nose - m, n, n
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laterals
created by placing the tongue on the ridge of the teeth
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phonemic expansion
the variety of sounds produced increases
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phonemic contraction
the variety of sounds is reduced to the sounds of the main language
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rhotacism
can';t pronounce the letter r
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lisp
stigmatism - difficulty producing sibilants
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stutter/stammer
repetition or prolonged pronunciation
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apraxia of speech
difficulty planning and coordinating movements necessary for speech
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Bogart-Bacall syndrome
often occurs in singers: causes by vocal chords abuse or overuse
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vocative
a form used to adress a person
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virtous error
a syntatical error made by young children, when they apply a general rule to an irregular or non-standard utterance
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recasting
saying similar sentence but using different vocabulary, to introduce children to different ways of saying the same thing
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expansions
adults take a simple phrase uttered by a child and build on the syntax to model a fuller sentence
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egocentric speech
children talk to themselves while playing or working to help themselves make sense of something
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object permeance
the understanding that an object exists outside of the immediate environment
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

0-4 months, sound of discomfort or reflexive actions

Back

pre-verbal stage - vegetative

Card 3

Front

4-7 months, comfort sounds

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

6-12 months, repeated patterns of consonant and vowel sounds

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

9-12 months, word-like vocalisations; these don't match real words but are consistent (reduplicated monosyllables and lexis with implied meanings)

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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