CLA Key Features EP

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Elliptical Utterances
Grammatically incomplete utterances, often missing out function words.
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Words such as 'and' 'but' 'so' which are used to join clauses together.
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Sentences with the function of questioning
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Sentences with the function of making a statement
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Sentences with the function of giving an order
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Sentences with the function of expressing emotion e.g. shock
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Words used to replace nouns in a sentence e.g. he, you, I
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Simple sentences
Sentences which follow a basic subject-verb-object construction.
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Passive constructions
Utterances which use the passive voice where the subject is not identified e.g. The toy was broken. We do not know who broke the toy.
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Non-standard negation/formation of negatives
Negative utterances which don't follow a standard form e.g. I no want that.
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Modal verbs
Otherwise known as modal auxiliaries - these are words that express degrees of possibility. Epistemic Modality = possibility: May; can; could; might. Deontic modality = obligation: must; should; will; can.
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These can be divided into concrete and abstract. Children learn concrete nouns first as they relate to the objects and people they can see around them. Nouns take the 'labelling' function of language.
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Colloquial lexis
Informal words and phrases
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Simplified lexis
This can include baby talk such as jim-jams; beddy-byes etc. Adults simplify their lexical choices to meet the child's stage of development; complexity increases as the child becomes more advanced.
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Deictical references
Lexis used to indicate time and place. E.g. then, now, there, here. You are likely to see these being used when there is an activity taking place, such as playing with toys or reading a book.
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Lexical repetition
The repetition of words, either by the child (which could be due to excitement or frustration) or by the parents to reinforce the labelling of an object for example.
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Nicknames/used of names
Vocatives are words used to identify people, such as mummy and daddy. The use of nicknames can give an indication of the relationship between parents and children and can have some gender related ideas behind them.
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Field specific lexis
Lexical choices relating to a specific topic - this is likely to be based on the setting of the conversation or the activity, it might seem simple, but it's still relevant!
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Words that have an 'ie' or 'y' ending which softens the impact of the word and creates a CVCV pattern e.g. doggy.
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Made up words
These may relate to activities or toys, this is evidence of a child being creative with language and engaging in experimentation.
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Any words which are related to the geographical location. These might be hard to spot unless you are already familiar with them.
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Any words which link to the praise giving element of Positive Reinforcement. E.g. 'well done' 'good girl/boy' ' that's right'.
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Elongated sounds
These will be indicated in the key (usually shown by ::) elongated sounds can be used to emphasise a word to a child, or can indicate frustration on the part of the child.
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When sounds are added to the ends of words, such as diminutive suffixes.
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The replacement of one sound with another, usually influenced by another sound in the word. E.g. goggy instead of doggy.
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The replacement of one sound with another. E.g. dip instead of tip.
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Consonant cluster reduction
The removal of a consonant sound for ease of articulation e.g. spider becomes pider; school becomes cool.
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The omission of a sound from the end of a word e.g. bir instead of bird.
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Deletion of unstressed syllables
The omission of a sounds from the beginning of a word where the sound is not stressed e.g. banana becomes nana.
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Glottal stop
The omission of a /t/ sound - which could indicate a London accent - e.g. wa'er instead of water. It may also be due to ease of articulation.
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Non-standard pronunciation
Anything which is non-standard should be referred to in this way rather than an error, we need to consider the development of the child and how this may affect pronunciation.
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Any indication of a regional variation in pronunciation - this will be represented phonetically in the transcript.
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Paralinguistic features
Anything non-verbal, such as gestures, sounds of excitement or laughter.
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Any indication that a child has responded to humorous comments by adults or has made a joke themselves. This is quite advanced for young children.
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Phatic talk
Small talk which serves a social function, they may be imitating this from the adults around them.
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Awareness of social conventions
Any politeness features would fit into this category. Negative reinforcement by adults could link to this, such as recasting to include 'please'.
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The presence of adjacency pairs in conversation, sometimes indicated through Q&A structures.
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Any hesitation or use of fillers in an utterance. This could be in response to an open question when the child is more confident in responding to closed questions.
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Incomplete utterances
Holophrastic utterances or minor sentences are sometimes used in converation when the context provides meaning.
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False starts
When an utterance is paused and started again in a different way. This could be due to the child trying to find the right word.
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Direct questions
Questions directed straight to the other participant. When using CDS features, these questions could include the child's name.
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Tag questions
Question formations that turn a declarative into an interrogative such as: didn't we? isn't it? Can show uncertainty (Lakoff) or can be seen as a way of prompting the child for a response.
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Open/closed questions
Closed questions require a yes/no response. Open questions require more detail and thought - closed questions are part of CDS.
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Discourse markers
These indicate the direction of a conversation, words such as: right, now etc. They can indicate a change in topic or activity.
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Topic shift/management
Any change in the direction of a conversation. Discuss whether these are managed by the child or caregiver.
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Bilabial plosive
Plosives created with both lips e.g. /b/ and /p/. Nasal bilabial plosive - /m/
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Fricatives created with the lips and teeth e.g. /f/ and /v/
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Sounds produced using the tongue and teeth e.g. /l/ this also counts as an alveolar consonant - sounds produced by the tongue touching the alveolar ridge (just behind the teeth).
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Auxiliary Verbs
Verbs which 'help' an utterance make grammatical sense e.g. do, have.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


Words such as 'and' 'but' 'so' which are used to join clauses together.



Card 3


Sentences with the function of questioning


Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4


Sentences with the function of making a statement


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


Sentences with the function of giving an order


Preview of the back of card 5
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