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Name of the phonological stage where a child aged between 0-4 months make sounds of discomfort, such as crying, coughing and sucking.
Vegetative
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Name of the phonological stage where a child aged between 4-7 months make noises of comfort, such as coos and laughter. Hard vowel sounds form and pitch and loudness is practised
Cooing
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Name the features of the phonological stage of babbling
Extended sounds resembling syllable like sequence, sounds similar to own language, reduplicated sounds.
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Name the phonological feature where a child aged 9-12 months make word like vocalisations
Proto-words
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What did Alan Cruttenden find in 1974
That children (aged 7) are less accurate in their perceptions of intonation than adults, football scores
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(SOUND PRODUCTION) What is a consonant
A speech sound where the vocal tract is either blocked, or restricted as to cause audible friction
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(SOUND PRODUCTION) What is a vowel
A sound made where the vocal tract is not closed or not closed enough to cause audible friction
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(SOUND PRODUCTION) What is a diphthong
A sound made by the combining of vowels in a single syllable, whereby the sound begins as one vowel and moves towards another
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Why is 44 an important number
Number of phonemes in English
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What is phonemic expansion
When a child increases the variety of sounds it can make
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What is phonemic contraction
When the variety of sounds a child makes is reduced to the sounds needed in the main language the child will speak
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(TYPES OF SOUNDS) Voiced = b,d,g, Unvoiced = p,t,k, formed when airflow is blocked for a brief time
Plosives, also known as stop consonants
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(TYPES OF SOUNDS) Give example of fricatives, created when the airflow is partially blocked and air flows through the mouth in a steady stream
Voiced = v, ð (as in thy), z, ʒ (as in leisure) Unvoiced = f, θ (as in thigh), s, ∫ ( as in ship), h
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(TYPES OF SOUNDS) Voiced = dʒ (as in judge) Unvoiced = t∫ (as in church)
Affricates, created by putting plosives and fricatives together
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(TYPES OF SOUNDS) Name of sounds that are similar to the sounds of vowels
Approximants e.g. w,r,j,
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(TYPES OF SOUNDS) Give example of nasals, sounds that are produced by air being expelled through the nose
m,n, ŋ (as in cling)
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(TYPES OF SOUNDS) What sound is created by putting the tongue on the ridge of the teeth and then air passing down the sides of the mouth
Laterals
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(EARLY PHONOLOGICAL ERRORS) What is deletion
Omitting the final consonant in words, e.g. do(g), cu(p)
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(EARLY PHONOLOGICAL ERRORS) What is the name for substituting one sound for another, as in pip for ship
Substitution
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(EARLY PHONOLOGICAL ERRORS) What is the name for adding an extra vowel for another, creating a CVCV pattern
Addition
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(EARLY PHONOLOGICAL ERRORS) What is assimilation
Changing one consonant or vowel for another, e.g. gog for dog
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(EARLY PHONOLOGICAL ERRORS) What is the name for the repetition of a whole syllable, for example dada and mama
Reduplication
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(EARLY PHONOLOGICAL ERRORS) What is the name for the technique where children cut down combinations of consonants
Consonant cluster reduction
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(EARLY PHONOLOGICAL ERRORS) What is the deletion of unstressed syllable
Omitting the opening syllable in polysyllabic words
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Jean Berko Gleason and Roger Brown researched this in 1960, what is the name of the research and what does it find
Fish Phenomenon. JBG and RB found that a child who referred to a plastic fish as a 'fis', substituting the sh for an s, couldn't link an adults use of 'fis' with the same object
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(RATE OF LEXICAL DEVELOPMENT) Number of words in a child vocabulary at the age of 12 months
50
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(RATE OF LEXICAL DEVELOPMENT) Age where a child has 200 words in it's vocabulary
24 months
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(RATE OF LEXICAL DEVELOPMENT) Age where a child has 2000 words in it's vocabulary
36 months
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What is a protoword
An invented word that has a consistent meaning
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What did Katherine Nelson find in 1973
4 categories fr first words: naming (things or people), actions/events, describing/modifying words, personal/social words. 60% of first words are nouns, followed by verbs (used with action and location words), modifiers were 3rd, and 8% were personal
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What is meant by vocative
A form (especially a noun) used to address a person
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What is a content word
A type of word that has an independent 'dictionary' meaning, such as nouns, verbs and adjectives
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What is the name of a word whose role is to express a grammatical relationship, such as determiners, prepositions and aux. verbs
Function word
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What do social interactionists believe and name one
That child language develops through interaction with careers, Lev Vygotsky, Jerome Bruner
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What is the name of the technique where behaviour is rewarded, including verbal praise to encourage this behaviour to be repeated
Positive reinforcement
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What is negative reinforcement
When an undesirable behaviour is unrewarded with the intention that it will not be repeated
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Who is a behaviourist and what does they believe
That language is acquired by children through imitation and reinforcement
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What is overextension
When a child uses a word to label something 'stretched' to include things that aren't normally part of the words meaning
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What is the name of the feature used by children where a word is used to label is 'reduced' to include only part of its meaning
Underextension
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Which words did Eve Clark find children overextend
Physical qualities 'all 4 legged pets are dogs', features such as taste, sound, movement, shape, size and texture
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Who suggested that children are active learners
Jean Piaget
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(PIAGET'S LINGUISTIC DEVELOPMENT) Up to 2 years, child experiences physical world through the senses, and object permanence develops, language is concrete
Sensorimotor
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(PIAGET'S LINGUISTIC DEVELOPMENT) 2-7 years. Language and motor skills develop. Language is egocentric, either focused on the child or used by the child when no one else is around
Pre-operational
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(PIAGET'S LINGUISTIC DEVELOPMENT) When is the concrete operational stage and what is it
7-11, children begin to think logically about concrete events
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(PIAGET'S LINGUISTIC DEVELOPMENT) What happen after 11 years and what is it called
Abstract reasoning skills develop, Formal operational
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What did Eve Clark find in 2001
Common adjectives (nice, big) are amongst a child's first 50 words, but spatial adjectives (wide, narrow, thick, thin) are acquired later
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What is inflectional morphology
The alteration of words to make new grammatical forms
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What is derivational morphology
The creation of new words by adding prefixes and suffixes
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What term is given for the measure of a child's ability to produce stretches of language and how is it worked out
MLU Divide the number of morphemes by the total number of utterances
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(STAGE OF GRAMMATICAL DEVELOPMENT) What is the age of a child during the holophrastic/one word stage
12-18 months
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(STAGE OF GRAMMATICAL DEVELOPMENT) What is the grammatical construction during the two-word stage and what age does it take place
Subject + verb and verb + object, 18-24 months
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(STAGE OF GRAMMATICAL DEVELOPMENT) What is the construction of the telegraphic stage
Three or more words combined in increasingly complex orders, subject + verb + object, Subject + verb + compliment, Subject + verb + adverbial, 24-36 months
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(STAGE OF GRAMMATICAL DEVELOPMENT) What happens after 36 months
Increased awareness in grammatical rules and irregularities, post-telegraphic
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(MEANING RELATION IN 2 WORD UTTERANCES) Explain agent + action and give an example
Did someone perform an action, daddy kick
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(MEANING RELATION IN 2 WORD UTTERANCES) What is the meaning relation of me ball and explain why
agent + affected, does someone do something to an object
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(MEANING RELATION IN 2 WORD UTTERANCES) an example of entity + attribute is kitty big, why
A person or an object is being described
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(MEANING RELATION IN 2 WORD UTTERANCES) What is the meaning relation of throw stick
action + affected
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(MEANING RELATION IN 2 WORD UTTERANCES) An action occurs in a place, what is the the meaning relation
Action + location
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(MEANING RELATION IN 2 WORD UTTERANCES) Explain why an example of entity + location is spoon table
An object is located
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(MEANING RELATION IN 2 WORD UTTERANCES) Give an example of possessor + possession, and explain why
daddy coat, brother bowl, dog dish, sister magimixer, an object has a possessor
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(MEANING RELATION IN 2 WORD UTTERANCES) What would be the meaning relation of a person or object being labelled and give an example
nomination, that cake
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(MEANING RELATION IN 2 WORD UTTERANCES) Give an example and context of recurrence being used by the child
More ball = Finds second ball
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(MEANING RELATION IN 2 WORD UTTERANCES) What is the meaning relation for when something is denied
negation
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What words are often left out in the telegraphic stage
Function words
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What is a copula verb
A verb used to join or couple a subject to a complement, for example 'is' in 'mummy is nice'
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Who did research into a child's use of negatives, and how many stages are there
Ursula Bellugi, 3
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(BELUGI'S STAGES OF NEGATIVE FORMATION) What does a child so in stage 1
Child uses no or not at the beginning or end of a sentence, e.g. 'no wear shoes'
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(BELUGI'S STAGES OF NEGATIVE FORMATION) What does a child so in stage 2
Move no/not inside the sentence, e.g. 'I no want it'
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(BELUGI'S STAGES OF NEGATIVE FORMATION) What does a child so in stage 3
Attaches the negative to auxiliary verbs and the copula verb 'be' securely, e.g. 'No, I don't want to go to nursery'
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What is deixis
Lexical items that point to the time, place or situation, e.g. now, there
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What did Roger Brown find about a child's use of morphemes
They are acquired in a particular order
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(MORPHEME ACQUISITION) State the ending for present tense progressive
-ing
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(MORPHEME ACQUISITION) State a preposition
in, on
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(MORPHEME ACQUISITION) State the ending for plurals
-s, -es
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(MORPHEME ACQUISITION) State an irregular past tense verb
ran
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(MORPHEME ACQUISITION) State the ending for possessives
-'s
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(MORPHEME ACQUISITION) State an uncontractible copulas
is, was
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(MORPHEME ACQUISITION) State an articles
the, a
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(MORPHEME ACQUISITION) State the ending for past tense regular
-ed
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(MORPHEME ACQUISITION) State a third person regular verb
runs
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(MORPHEME ACQUISITION) State a third person irregular
has
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(MORPHEME ACQUISITION) State an uncontractible auxiliary verb
they were running
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(MORPHEME ACQUISITION) State a contractible copula
she's
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(MORPHEME ACQUISITION) State a contractible auxiliary
she's running
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What is a free morpheme
One that can stand alone as an independent word, e.g. apple
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What is a bound morpheme
One that cannot stand alonse as an independent word, but must be attached to another morpheme/word, e.g. plural affixes are always bound
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What do cognitive theorist believe
That language acquisition is part of a wider development ofunderstand
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What is a virtuous error
Syntactic errors made by young children in which the non-standard utterance reveals some understanding, though incomplete, of standard syntax
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What is meant by overgeneralisation
A learner's extension of a word meaning or grammatical rule beyond its normal use
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Which theorist is supported by overgeneralistaions
Chomsky, they show that children produce language that they have never heard an adult say, using goed instead of went supports universal grammar
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What is a stative verb
A verb that describes a state or condition that is quite static or unchanging. Broken into perception, 'hate, love, believe' and relation, 'own, contain'
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What is dynamic verb
A verb that expresses activities or changes of state, for example 'play, melt, hit, drink, go, speak, watch'
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What was the name of the test done by Jean Berko Gleason in 1959, and what did it test
Wug test, test into children's morphological development. Showed a picture of a bird she called a wug, then showed two wugs, 3/4 of children aged 4-5 could pluralise Wug using the regular s pluralisation rule
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Which two theorists had functions of speech
Halliday and Dore
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(HALLIDAY'S FUNCTIONS) What is the instrumental function
fulfil a need
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(HALLIDAY'S FUNCTIONS) What is the regulatory function
influence the behaviour of others
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(HALLIDAY'S FUNCTIONS) What is the interactional function
develop and maintain social relationships
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(HALLIDAY'S FUNCTIONS) What is the personal function
convey individual opinions, ideas and personal identity
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(HALLIDAY'S FUNCTIONS) What is the representational function
convey fact and information
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(HALLIDAY'S FUNCTIONS) What is the imaginative function
create an imaginary world and may be seen predominantly in play
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(HALLIDAY'S FUNCTIONS) What is the heuristic function
learn about the environment
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(DORE'S FUNCTIONS) What is the labelling function
naming a person or an object
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(DORE'S FUNCTIONS) What is the repeating function
repeating an adult word or utterance
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(DORE'S FUNCTIONS) What is the answering function
responding to an utterance of another speaker
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(DORE'S FUNCTIONS) What is the requesting action function
asking for something to be done for them
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(DORE'S FUNCTIONS) What is the calling function
getting attention by shouting
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(DORE'S FUNCTIONS) What is the greeting function
greeting someone or something
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(DORE'S FUNCTIONS) What is the protesting function
objecting to requests from others
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(DORE'S FUNCTIONS) What is the practising function
using language when no adult is present
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What is meant by egocentric speech
The running discourse style of speech used by children when no listener is addressed directly and talk is focused solely on the child activities
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What is positive politness
Where the individual desires social approval and being included
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What is negative politness
Where an individual asserts their need to be independent and make their own decisions
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What is meant by scaffolding and who came up with the concept
The process of transferring a skill from an adult to a child and then withdrawing support once the skill is mastered, Jerome Bruner
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Card 2

Front

Name of the phonological stage where a child aged between 4-7 months make noises of comfort, such as coos and laughter. Hard vowel sounds form and pitch and loudness is practised

Back

Cooing

Card 3

Front

Name the features of the phonological stage of babbling

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Name the phonological feature where a child aged 9-12 months make word like vocalisations

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What did Alan Cruttenden find in 1974

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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