Civil rights protests: later southern campaigns 1963-1965

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When was the Birmingham campaign?
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What did the Birmingham campaign focus on?
Segregation and unequal opportunities
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Why did King choose Birmingham?
SCLC had to demonstrate it could be dynamic
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Why did the SCLC have to be dynamic?
Increasing attractiveness of black nationalism and the competition between civil rights movement
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Were SNCC and the NAACP active in Birmingham?
Were relatively inactive in Birmingham
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Where did King's brother work as a pastor?
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What did King expect to find in Birmingham?
Fewer black divisions and felt that white divisions present were promising
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Why were white divisions in Birmingham promising of a result?
Businessmen that felt racism held city back while extremists had recently castrated a Negro ad campaigned to stop Negro music playing on white radio stations
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Why was extremism in Birmingham as well as strong racism important to a campaign?
Could be expected to display necessary violent white opposition
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What did King describe Birmingham as?
America's "worst big city" for racism
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What was King impatient with?
Kennedy administration's inactivity
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What had shown that violence forced federal intervention?
Freedom Rides
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Who were the key figures in Birmingham?
King (and the SCLC) and Bull Connor
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What was the full title of 'Bull' Connor?
Birmingham's Public Safety Commissioner
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What was the importance of 'Bull' Connor before Birmingham?
Had previously clashed with Eleanor Roosevelt and had ensured that Freedom Riders under attack were not given protection by his police
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What was a miscalculation by King?
SCLC failed to recruit enough local demonstrators
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Why did SCLC fail to recruit enough local demonstrators?
Local SCLC leader was unpopular
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What did many blacks in Birmingham feel made action unnecessary?
Recent electoral defeat of Connor
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How did SCLC give the impression of mass action, encouraging onlookers to participate?
Used demonstrators in areas where there were lots of blacks
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Why did King defy an injunction by marching?
Knew his arrest would bring further national attention
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How did the SCLC eventually mobilise people due to difficulty?
Black school children as young as six
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What was the issue with the SCLC's use of black school children?
Aside from concerns over morality, there was legal opposition
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How many young marchers were in custody in Birmingham?
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How did Eugene 'Bull' Connor respond to demonstrators?
His police and dogs turned on demonstrators. His hoses tore clothes off of students' backs
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What was the result for the SCLC of tehir involvemett?
SCLC "filled the jails"
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Who did a leading SCLC official thank for his violent response?
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What happened after a deal was reached to improve the situation?
Eugene Connor's KKK friends tried to sabotage, bombing King's brothers' home as well as King's motel room
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What happened in black riots that served to detract from the message?
Policeman stabbed
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What did King do when educational conservatives tried to derail possible settlement by expelling 1100 students for skipping school to demonstrate?
Urged locals not to call for a total school and business boycott but rather turn to the courts
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Why was King released from jail in Birmignham?
Coretta King called President Kennedy
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What did Kennedy claim about the chaos in Birmingham?
It was "damaging the reputation" of Birmingham and US
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Who commanded state troopers to disappear from guarding King's motel shortly before explosion?
Friend of Connor as well as the Alabama racist Governor George Wallace
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What provoked the Birmingham riot of 1963?
Provoked by bombings targeted at leaders of the Birmingham campaign on May 11th
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What did Kennedy fear regarding the police stabbing?
Could lead to national violence
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What did JFK urge his brother, the Attorney General, to do?
Protect the Birmingham agreement
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What did a federal judge do for the students who had been expelled for skipping class to march?
A reinstatement to school
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What was King's role in Birmignham?
Instigator, in jail was kept in solitary confinement and not allowed private meetings with his lawyer, Letter from Birmingham Jail
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What did King write the Letter from Birmingham Jail on?
Partly on prison toilet paper
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When was the first time that King really led the civil rights movement?
Birmingham in 1963
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How can the SCLC be shown to have manipulated the situation?
Correctly assessed how Connor would react and how the media would depict actions
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Did much change in Birmingham because of events there?
Little changed but showed Southern segregation was unpleasant
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As a result of Birmingham, what did the SCLC receive?
Extra donatiosn
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What did the Kennedy administration admt regarding Birmingham?
Was crucial in persuading them to push the bill that became the 1964 Civil Rights Act
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What inspired the protests in summer 1963 across teh South?
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What did King recognise regarding non-violent protest?
It makes people inflict violence upon you
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Critics accused King of hypocrisy. What is an example of this?
"He marches for peace one day, and then the very next day threatens actions we think are coldly calculated to bring violent responses."
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When was the March on Washington?
23 August 1963
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What was the March on Washington's aim?
Encourage passage of civil rights bill and for executive action to reduce black unemployment
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Initially who were unsupportive of the idea of march on Washington?
Roy Wilkins and JFK
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Who was Roy Wilkins?
NAACP activist
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What did King feel the March would do?
Help maintain morale and show the effectiveness of non-violent protest
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What were the fears regarding non-violent protest?
that it was becoming less popular
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Was the March on Washington a success?
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What was the demographic make up of the crowd of 250,000 at the march on Washington?
Predominantly middle class and 1/4were white
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How did King appeal to whites during the March on Washington?
Through references to the Declaration of Independence and the Bible
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When was the first time that the major civil rights leaders collaborated nationally?
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Which civil rights groups worked together in Birmingham?
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On what scale did the TV and media cover the March on Washington and what did they show?
Globally - showing the I have a Dream Speech
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After Washington what had King become?
An undoubted leader as had been in an action in which morality could not be questioned
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When did King receive a Nobel Peace Prize?
After Washington
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Partially as a result of Washington, what was passed in 1964?
Civil Rights laws
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What is a key quote from the I have a dream speech which can be used to show the unconstitutional nature of de jure racism?
I have a dream thak me day this nation will rise up, live out the true meaning of its creed: "We hold these truths to be self-erident, that all men are created equal."
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What happened after Washington that was sads?
Co-operation does not last
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What happened after Washington regarding SNCC?
They began to radicalise
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What do historians disagree on regarding the March on Washington?
The extent to which the emotional impact helped pass legislation
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Although many contemporaries were thrilled by the March on Washington, what was the view of the New York Times?
Congress was unmoved
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What happened soon after Washington?
Birmingham in September 1963
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Had much been changed initially by March on Washington?
NO. Abomb killed 4 young black girls attending Sunday school with 3 whites arrested then released on lack of evidence. Black riots - policeman shot black youth
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What did President Johnson use John F Kennedy's assassination to do?
Help push through legislation
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What happened after the March in Mississippi?
Voting rights campaigns
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What happened in Mississippi in 1964?
Mississippi Freedom Summer
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What was Freedom Summer?
The summer 1964 campaign by SNCC designed to get blacks in Mississippi to vote
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In 1960 what percentage of blacks in Mississippi could vote?
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What was the average percentage of blacks who could vote in the South in 1960?
Over 30%
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Although half of Mississippi black, when was the last elected black official (backwards from 1964)?
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What was the political status of Mississippi blacks?
Politically powerless
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What proportion more did Mississippi spend on white students compared to black students?
3x more
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What percentage of Mississippi blacks were illiterate?
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How many black doctors were there in Mississippi around 1964?
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A black baby was twice as likely to what as a white baby in Mississippi?
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How many black Mississippians had migrated north?
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In 1961 what had NAACP activists done in Mississippi because they were increasingly being victimised?
Called on help from SNCC, knowing that their white volunteers would draw media attention
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In Mississippi what level did SNCC operate on, establishing Freedom Schools?
Community level
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What did Freedom Schools do?
Educate would-be voters and get ethm to register
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How did the local poorer black population respond to Freedom Schools?
Responded well
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What was the risk for SNCC workers during the Mississippi Freedom Summer campaign?
Lived in fear of white extremists and were unprotected.
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When did SNCC organise a mock election for blacks, known as Freedom Vote?
November 1963
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When did SNCC organise a voter registration drive (the Mississippi Summer Project)?
1964 in the Freedom Summer
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What was the predominant race among the Northern volunteers who came to Mississippi?
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What caused America to take notice of Missouri?
Three activists, including two white, murdered by segregationalists
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In Mississippi what group were police chiefs members of?
Ku Klux Klan
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Aside from Freedom Summer, what did SNCC also organise?
MFDP delegation to hthe Democratic National Conference of Autumn 1964
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What was MFDP?
Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party
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Although the experience of the MFDP at the conference was disappointing, what was achieved?
Politicised many poor black people, especially women, in teh state
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What became clear from the fact that the MFDP did not get to deliver speech at the conference?
Democrats racist
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Why did SNCC become disillusioned?
Due to lack of federal protection
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What was a result of the Mississippi Freedom Summer?
SNCC more militant, contributing to the disintegration of civil rights coalition
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Why was Martin Luther King not involved in Mississippi?
NAACP thought too risky
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What convincec SNCC that middle class religious black thinking was not the way forward?
Freedom Summer
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What was the significance of the creation of the MFDP?
Developed grassroots leaders and brought suffering to national attention
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What was the success of Freedom Summer?
More blacks voting
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What was a crucial event in Mississippi during the Freedom Summer?
The fact that two of the activists killed were white -0 white killing whites
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What was the impact of Freedom Summer on SNCC?
Increase in importance, becomes political and sees teh limits of non-violence. Know that their methods can work.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What did the Birmingham campaign focus on?


Segregation and unequal opportunities

Card 3


Why did King choose Birmingham?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Why did the SCLC have to be dynamic?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Were SNCC and the NAACP active in Birmingham?


Preview of the front of card 5
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