Civil Rights Protests: Early Southern Campaigns 1955-1962 Part 3

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  • Created on: 20-03-14 14:06
When were the sit-ins?
1960
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What is a reason that the sit-ins were required?
King admitted that the SCLC had achieved little in the 3 years after Montgomery
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Why were students often more impatient with slow process towards equality?
To some extent was due to the fact that they were better educated than their parents
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Who can the responsibility for the sit-ins be attributed to?
The original 4 protestors, the students that joined them or even the other blacks who pioneered the same technique in 1957-8.
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When was the sit-in pioneered in Oklahoma and Kansas?
1957-1958
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How could the press be held responsible for the sit-ins?
As they covered the sit-ins extensively.
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Who were the key figures in the sit-ins?
Student protesters (especially four original black college students), Martin Luther King, NAACP and Ella Baker
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Was the NAACP enthusiastic about helping the students?
No, they were not.
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What was the role of Ella Baker in the sit-ins and who was she?
A SCLC employee who warned students not to allow adults like King to tak over protest.
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What was the catalyst for the sit-ins?
In Greensboro, North Carolina four students spontaneously refused to leave all-white Woolworth's cafeteria when asked.
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What happened regarding the seats in Woolworth's, Greensboro?
Other students took up seats and retained them day after day. This caused cafeteria to close.
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How many students approximately joined in with the sit-ins in the south?
As many as 70,000
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What other events other than sit-ins at restaurants and cafes were held?
'wade-ins' at segregated pools, 'read ins' at segregated libraries, 'watch-ins' at cinemas and 'kneel-ins' at white only churches
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Was King initially involved?
No. O
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When did King become involved?
When a Greensboro SCLC member contacted him, he arrived to support students and assure their support.
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Why did King actually join the sit-in?
When persuaded to by Atlanta students.
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What was a similarity between the sit-ins and Montgomery, Alabama?
King was led rather than being the leader.
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Who was the main involvement?
Student action without a large amount of outside actino, did this for themselves.
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Where was Greensboro?
North Carolina
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What did sit-ins do regarding the Jim Crow laws?
Helped to erode them
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What did loss of business make Woolworth's do by the end of 1961?
Desegregate all of their lunch counters
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How many cities desegregated various public places in the aftermath of the sit-ins?
150
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Black students had been mobilised. What organisation did they set up?
Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
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What happened when the SNCC was set up?
Inter-organisational problems arose.
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What did the SNCC accuse the SCLC of doing?
Keeping donations intended for them.
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What did the NAACP lawyer Thurgood Marshall say regarding the students?
He refused to represent "a bunch of crazy coloured students."
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What did King's public acknowledgement of NAACP/SCLC do?
Infuriate Roy Wilkins.
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Why was Roy Wilkins' annoyed by King's public announcement of divisions?
Blacks needed a single leader who could unite all activists - King never fulfilled this role buut others such as Wilkins were equally to blame.
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Who was Roy Wilkins?
Leader of the NAACP
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What did the sit-ins take the focus of the civil rights movement from and to?
From litigation to mass direct action.
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What did the students feel, encouraged by Ella Baker?
That their actions had rendered King's cautious leadership and 'top-down' leadership obsolete.
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What did SNCC do?
From 1961-1964 organise grassroots struggles in places like Georgia
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Which group was SNCC more appreciative of than any other black organisation?
Women workers
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What did the SNCC workers become known as?
Shock troops
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Why did SNCC members become known as 'shock troops'?
Wherever there was activism or the need for it, SNCC workers and volunteers would be demonstrated
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What did the sit-ins demonstrate?
That civil rights campaigns could spread quickly and affect the whole South
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The sit-ins showed the economic power of blacks in the South. How can this be shown?
Woolworth's profits dropped by a third during the campaign.
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When were the Freedom Rides?
1961
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What did the CORE director say about the Freedom Rides?
"the specific intention of creating a crisis. We were counting on the bigots in the South to do our work for us. We figured that the government would have to respond if we... affected the nation's image abroad."
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When had the tactic for the Freedom Rides been used before?
In 1947 without success
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Who was James Farmer?
CORE director
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Contrast King and CORE's freedom rides
King unable to think up new tactics for gaining attention but CORE's Freedom Rides gained publicity and were significant
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What was the intention of the Freedom Rides?
See if Supreme Court Rulings such as Morgan v Virginia and Boynton v Virginia would be enforced. See if de jure change can lead to de facto change
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Morgan v Virginia (1946)
Against segregation on interstate transport
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Boynton v Virginia (1960)
Against segregation in interstate bus facilties
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Who were the key figures in the Freedom Rides?
CORE, James Farmer, 'Bull' Connor and Martin Luther King
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Who was 'Bull Connor'?
Birmingham Police Chief Eugene 'Bull' Connor
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What was the role of Birmingham Police Chief 'Bull' Connor?
Refused to protect the Freedom Rides and even granted most of the local police the day off
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What did the fact that 'Bull' Connor gave police the day off do?
Aided local racists
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What was the role of Martin Luther King in the Freedom Rides?
After poliec and medics refused to intervene in Montgomery when white crowd beat people, King gave a speech at rally in support of freedom riders
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Before King's speech at rally in support of Freedom Riders had he intended to become involved?
No, had previously refused to become involved.
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What happened on 4th May 1961?
Seven black and six white activists from CORE and SNCC activists set out on Greyhound and Trailways buses
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What did the Freedom Riders expect to be met with?
Violent resistance which would be useful as would lead to media attention.
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What happened in Anniston regarding the Freedom Ride?
Local police officers working with the KKK refused to intervene when a white mob fire-bombed a bus
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What did Alabama racists do to black passengers?
Attacked them with clubs and chains and burned their buses.
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Where was the planned destination of the first Freedom Ride?
New Orleans
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Where was the first Freedom Ride forced to end due to mob violence?
Birmingham
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When and where did the second Freedom Ride start?
On 17th May in Nashville
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Where did the Second Freedom Ride end and why?
In Jackson, where many demonstrators were jailed
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What did Martin Luther King do regarding the Freedom Rides?
He did not begin the protests but quickly made contact with the students
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Why did students criticise Martin Luther King?
He did not go on the Freedom Rides himself
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What was a reason why Martin Luther King did not go on the Freedom Rides?
He was on probation for a minor traffic offence and feared arrest.
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What happened as a result of the Freedom Rides, on a federal level?
Attorney General Bobby Kennedy enforced the Supreme Court rulings on desegregated interstate tr
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How did King use the Freedom Rides, although they were initiated by CORE?
Used them to get CORE, SCLC and SNCC to work together; according to critics his aim was ensuring SCLC dominance.
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Did black divisions remain after the Freedom Rides?
Yes - CORE insisted that SCLC announce that CORE initiated Freedom Rides
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What did the Freedom Rides mark?
A new high point in co-operation within the civil rights movement as involved CORE, SNCC and SCLC
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What did the Freedom Rides show regarding the Kennedy administration?
That they were sympathetic towards civil rights
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When was the first violence of the Freedom Rides?
May 9th
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What did King say regarding the actions of the civil rights movement
"The people wanted to do something they would have done with or without me."
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What was the background and causes of action in Albany 1961-2?
Albany bus station had ignored Interstate Commerce Commission's order to desegregate. SNCC organised students.
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Who were the key figures in Albany?
SNCC and students from black Albany State College, Georgia. MLK and the Attorney General
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What did Attorney General Kennedy do regarding Albany?
Put pressure on city authorities to desegregate btu they refused
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When did SNCC organise students in sit-ins at Albany bus station?
November 1961 with hundreds of arrests
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What did blacks do in Albany after the arrests after sit-in?
Boycotted white businesses to no avail
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What was King's role in Albany?
Followed rather than led, after older leaders of the Albany movement invited him to join them
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Why did the invitation for King to join action in albany anger SNCC?
They stressed that the movement was to be for and by the local people
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What did King do in Albany?
Led a march and came to promising agreement with city authorities
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What happened after Martin Luther King left Albany?
Authorities reneged on the agreement and the Albany Movement petered out in serious of decreasingly supported protests.
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What did King regard Albany as?
Major defeat
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What are the reasons for the failure of the Albany Movement?
Black violence, black divisions and criticism of King
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Failure of the Albany Movement - Black violence
Led to poor publicity while local police chief Laurie Pritchett had avoided violence. Federal government had no reason to intervene
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What happened when King was arrested during the Albany Movement?
Evidence suggests that Laurie Pritchett (local police chief) ad him released to prevent incarceration gaining publicity.
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Failure of the Albany Movement - black divisions
Some were paid informants of the white city leadership and also local black leaders resented outsiders. NAACP, SNCC and SCLC refused to co-operate with each other.
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Failure of the Albany Movement - Criticism of King
King was criticised by some black for indecision regarding divisions and by others for choosing fine over remaining in jail at Christmas as he had promised
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What happened because of Albany? POSITIVE
Interstate terminal facilities desegregated and more black voters allowed to register
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What happened because of Albany? NEGATIVE
City closed the parks, sold its swimming pool, integrated library after removing all seats and refused to desegregate the school
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Why did local black leaders claim local black community lost in Albany?
Fear of ***********
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What was SNCC's 'jail not bail' strategy used in Albany?
It filled jails with protesters and brought courts and jails to standstill.
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What did King learn from Albany?
Unwise for SCLC to intervene in an area without strong SCLC presence and it was probably more effective to focus on one particular aspect of segregation.
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Why did King say it was unwise to concentrate on negotiations with white authorities and instead boycott white businesses so they would advocate negotiation?
Blacks had little political power
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What did all the lessons learned in Albany help show?
The best way forward for Birmingham, Alabama
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What state was Albany in?
Georgia
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When was the personal campaign of James Meredith regarding the University of Mississippi?
1962
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What did James Meredith's personal campaign focus on?
Attempt to become first black student at University of Mississippi but Ross Barnett refused to allow him to enroll
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Who was Ross Barnett?
Governor of Mississippi
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What was the federal response to James Meredith's refusal of admission?
; Supreme Court backed Meredith with Kennedy putting pressure on Barnett to back down
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What was the result of Barnett refusing protection to Meredith when he arrived on campus?
He faced a mob of violent white protestors who stopped him enrolling
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What did Kennedy do following the violence when Meredith attempted to enroll?
Sent 3000 federal troops so he could enroll successfully.
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Did James Meredith complete his degree?
Yes, graduated with degree in Political Science although many white students had shunned him.
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How did white protesters react to Meredith's enrollment?
Violently! Riots killed 2 people and injured 375
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Who was John Howard Griffin?
An American journlist who in 1959 went medical treatment to change skin colour to experience treatments of blacks in south; wrote the book 'Black Like Me'.
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How does an episode on the bus in Griffin's book while passing as a black man describe the climate of the times?
He attempted to give a seat to a white woman but disapproving looks from black passengers stopped him and the woman herself began talking with other white passengers about how sassy 'they' were becoming.
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What does Professor Clayborne Carson claim regarding King?
"If King had never lived, the black struggle would have followed a course of development similar to the one it did... Black students... had sources of tactical and ideological inspiration besides King."
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What does William Chafe (1980) see as a turning point in the civil rights movement?
The Greensboro sit-ins seeing them as spontaneous and owing little to existing civil rights rganisations.
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How does Aldon Morris' view contrast against that of William Chafe?
Morris saw the sit-ins as linked to a pre-existing network of churches, colleges and civil rights group.
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How does Steven Lawson describe the civil rights movement?
As a mixture of local and national groups and events
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What is the 'top-down' view of the movement?
picking out major events or individuals as 'starting' the movement
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What is the 'bottom-up' view of the Civil Rights Movement?
Emphasising less well known grassroots activism that had been in operation years before King and continued in the years dominated by him.
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Card 2

Front

What is a reason that the sit-ins were required?

Back

King admitted that the SCLC had achieved little in the 3 years after Montgomery

Card 3

Front

Why were students often more impatient with slow process towards equality?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Who can the responsibility for the sit-ins be attributed to?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

When was the sit-in pioneered in Oklahoma and Kansas?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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