Civil Rights Protests: Early Southern Campaigns 1955-1962 Part 2

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  • Created by: emma why
  • Created on: 20-03-14 09:56
When was action taken at Little Rock High School?
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What were the causes of action in Little Rock?
Governor Orval Faubus of Arkansas and city compliance with BROWN
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Causes of Little Rock - Governor Faubus of Arkansas?
Was struggling to get re-elected and decided to exploit white racism to ensure re-election as many whites worried about segregation
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Cause of Little Rock - Compliance with BROWN
Little Rock's plans for compliance were scheduled to come to slow completion in 1963 with Little Rock to be the first integrated school
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Who were the key figures in Little Rock?
Eisenhower, Governor Faubus, Melba Pattillo
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Why did Melba Pattillo volunteer
When asked by NAACP and church leaders.
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Why was Melba Pattillo's mother originally against her action?
Fears of losing her job
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Who were the Little Rock Nine?
The nine students involved
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What inspired Melba Pattillo?
"self-assured air" of Thurgood Marshall
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Who did Melba Pattillo have the backing of?
Her mother and grandmother, many blacks and a few whites
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When did nine black students report to Central High?
September 1957
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Were the students legally able to report to Central High?
Yes but in this southern state Washington's laws took time to be enforced
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What did Governor Faubus declare?
It was his duty to prevent the disorder that would result from integration and ordered Arkansas National Guard to surround the school and keep black students away
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How were the Little Rock Nine taken to the school?
In armoured cars
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What happened when the students entered the school?
White men assaulted Melba, racist taunts shouting at the group.
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Although a white boy befriended Melba what was the general reaction to her?
Often tripped and once only a book prevented her from being knifed.
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What did Eisenhower say before the Little Rock crisis and how did this encourage Faubus?
Never envisage sending in federal troops to enforce federal court ruling, encouraged Faubus
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What did Eisenhower do when the Little Rock mayor told him the mob was out of hand?
Sent in troops to protect the chidlren
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What did Eisenhower do to try to restore harmony?
Made a radio speech
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What was the content of Eisenhower's radio speech?
Made no mention of integration, blaming "disorderly mobs" and extremists.
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Did Eisenhower endorse BROWN?
No, he refused to and instead tried to rally the nation.
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Was Eisenhower forced to intervene and if so what were the 5 reasons?
Yes as: tried and failed to negotiate settlement with Faubus, public appeals to rioters ignored, local officials begged him to act, constitution and federal law threatened and concerns regarding US international influence
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Although Eisenhower had previously done nothing to support black civil rights how could he be seen to be helping in Little Rock?
Helped black people with federal troops to protect them, going against Faubus.
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Eisenhower's actions in Little Rock were first sign of progress with him - what did he later do?
Passed Civil Rights Acts
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Did Martin Luther King play a role in Little Rock?
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What did Martin Luther King say when he later wrote to Eisenhower regarding Little Rock?
"The overwhelming majority of southerners, ***** and white, stand firmly behind your resolute action to restore law and order in Little Rock."
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What did others in the black community think of the 'meddling' nine?
Resented them
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What did Melba Pattillo later wonder?
why "my parents and the adults of the NAACP to allow us to go to school in the face of such violence."
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What did Little Rock show regarding the enforcement of Supreme Court rulings such as BROWN?
Met grassroots resistance
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Blacks tried to move forward at Little Rock. Was there a great improvement there?
No, Faubus was relected four times.
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Did local or national authorities act keenly to reinforce BROWN?
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What did Faubus do rather than integrate?
Closed schools, leaving 4000 students (black and white) having to seek education elsewhere
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Did Eisenhower respond when Faubus closed schools?
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When was Central High integrated?
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How many years after Little Rock (1957) were all of the city's schools fully integrated?
15 years later (1972)
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Why had some cities such as Atlanta desegregated schools quicker than Little Rock eventually did?
To avoid violence and publicity
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In 1964 what percentage of black children in Little Rock were in desegregated schools?
Only 2-3%
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What affected white moderate opinion?
Images on TV of black children harassed and spat on by aggressive white adults in Little Rock.
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What illustrates the increasing importance of television to the civil rights movement?
Little Rock drew national TV crews with new style of on-site reporting
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What happened as a result of Little Rock?
Increase in membership of organisations such as KKK and increase in tension and violence as after BROWN with Emmett Till.
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Did the Supreme Court plough on after Little Rock?
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What did COOPER v AARON (1958) say?
Any law seeking to keep public schools desegregated was illegal?
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What was the black reaction to Little rOCK?
Saw neededd to do more than rely on court, more needs to be done as NAACP rulings did not solve everyhing.
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Why was there a need for direct action?
State could ignore federal rulings?
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What were the causes of action in Little Rock?


Governor Orval Faubus of Arkansas and city compliance with BROWN

Card 3


Causes of Little Rock - Governor Faubus of Arkansas?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Cause of Little Rock - Compliance with BROWN


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Who were the key figures in Little Rock?


Preview of the front of card 5
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