Civil Rights Protests: Early Southern Campaigns 1955-1962 Part 1

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  • Created by: emma why
  • Created on: 20-03-14 09:29
What is a quote by Martin Luther King that can be used to show his ethos?
"If we are wrong, the Supreme Court of this nation is wrong. If we are wrong, the Constitution of the United States is wrong. If we are wrong, Jesus of Nazareth was merely a... dreamer."
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What is the significance of the Montgomery Bus Boycott?
Seen by many as the start of the US Civil Rights movement
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What happened in December 1955?
Mrs Rosa Parks returned home from work as a seamstress in Montgomery. White man standing so ordered her and 3 others to move. They did, she refused.
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What was Rosa Parks arrested and charged with when she refused to move on the bus?
Violation of Montgomery bus segregation ordinance
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Why were Rosa Parks and three others told to move from their seats?
City rule that no black passenger could sit parallel with white.
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What was the law regarding black people on buses?
Separate seats and black people give up seeds if needed to
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What was the significance of Rosa Parks?
She was a member of the NAACP and knew that action was necessary
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What had happened weeks before the Rosa Parks incident?
A black mother had put two babies on front 'white' seats in order to pay fare and driver hit accelerator, babies fell into aisle
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What were the key organisations in the Montgomery Bus Boycott?
NAACP and MIA
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What was MIA?
Montgomery Improvement Association - umbrella organisation with small groups protected under larger name
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What happened to Claudette Colvin in March 1955?
Arrested for refusing to give up seat for white passenger
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Why was Claudette Colvin not chosen for NAACP action?
Pregnant, unmarried teenager who had previously been accused of assault.
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How does the use of Rosa Parks over Claudette Colvin show the deliberateness of NAACP action?
Choice of case - a challenge would cost $500,000 so Rosa a safer test case.
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In what way was Martin Luther King a key figure in the Montgomery Bus Boycott?
He was a local church leader and the NAACP worked with him.
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What was one reason there was not a demand for full segregation in the Montgomery Bus Boycott?
Made them appear polite and fair - reasonable demadn
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Who assisted Rosa after she was arrested?
NAACP and Alabama State College.
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What did Alabama State College students do, encouraged by lecturer Jo Ann Robinson and the Women's Political Council?
Handed out propaganda leaflets
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What happened on the day of Rosa Park's trial
Blacks successfully boycotted Montgomery buses
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Was boycotting a traditional method?
Yes and it was usually effective
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What was the original demand after the boycott on the day of Rosa Park's trial?
Bus companies use a first-come first-served system, black driver employed and a drivers polite to blacks
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What happened regarding the original demand?
Proposals rejected by city commissioners and one day boycott lasted a year
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What did a successful long term boycott require among the 50,000 blacks of Montgomery
To stand together - when a black man got on the bus an elderly black woman ran after him
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What did northerners do for the blacks of Montgomery?
Made collections for them
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What did white hostility cause MIA to do?
Try harder; in case partially funded by the NAACP the federal government said segregation of Alabama bues was unconstitutional, citing the BROWN ruling
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What was the case in which federal government said that segregation of Alabama buses was unconstitutional?
BROWDER v GAYLE (June 1956)
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When was the bus boycott called off?
In December 1956 when desegregated buses began operating
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How did the KKK respond to the beginning of desegregated buses in Alabama?
Sent 40 carloads of hooded members through Montgomery's "****** town."
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What was unusual about the black response to the KKK actions after Montgomery?
They came out and waved at the motorcade.
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What was the federal role in Montgomery?
BROWDER v GAYLE related to Montgomery and led to end to bus boycott
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What was the role of Montgomery authrotiies?
Realised significance of boycott and following a march arrested King and 156 other black protesters.
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What was King's response to his fine of $500 and prison after march in Montgomery?
Proclaimed he was proud of his crime and served just 2 weeks of sentence
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Why did NAACP involve local church leaders such as Martin Luther King?
Believed that church involvement would increase black working class participation and decrease possibility of disorder
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Did Martin Luther King initiate the boycott
No but became its leader as community agreed he would be a good leading figure
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Why was there no better alternative to Martin Luther King as figurehead of Montgomery Bus Boycott?
National NAACP did not want to get involved and employees of Alabama State College ran the risk of dismissal.
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Why was King a good choice for leader of the bus boycott?
Religious, well educated and middle class. Headed MIA and was a good orator.
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What was the de jure significance of Montgomery Bus Boycott?
MIA case partially funded by NAACP; BROWDER V GAYLE
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What happened after Montgomery regarding other Southern white bus companies?
Began ti integrate
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What did the religious backing through King make it harder for white people to do?
Reject the aims/achievements of Montgomery
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What did Montgomery show about the power of black people and non-violent action?
Could succeed with 50,000 workng together and also power of non-violence; whites could not believe local blacks had sustained the movement
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What was the significance of black economic power in Montgomery?
As could not get downtown, businesses lost $1.8mn
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How many cities did Montgomery spark a successful bus boycott in?
20 southern cities
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Who did the Montgomery Bus Boycott inspire?
Melba Pattillo
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King was brought to the forefront of the movement by Montgomery. When did he establish the SCLC?
1957
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What was the significance of the SCLC?
Useful as NAACP was persecuted
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What did SCLC stand for
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
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What did Montgomery and BROWDER v GAYLE indicate regarding the Supreme Court?
Wiling to overturn Plessy v Ferguson
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How did Montgomery highlight the significance of media involvement?
Television reports had portrayed the injustice of segregation to both a national and international audience.
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What was a negative regarding white response to Montgomery?
KKK increased
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What was a limitation of Montgomery?
Partial victory by MIA but city still segregated
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What did Montgomery show regarding hatred?
White Southerners hatred against the idealism of some Southern whites such as Reverend Robert Graetz whose home was bombed
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Where did Reverend Robert Graetz work as minister?
A BLACK church!
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What did Montgomery show regarding local authorities?
Lengths to which they would go to defend segregation.
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What did King himself say regarding the Montgomery Bus Boycott?
"I just happened to be here... If M.L. King had never been born this movement would have taken place."
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What did a local activist say regarding Montgomery and MLK?
it was "a protest of the people... not a one-man show... the leaders couldn't stop it if they wanted to."
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What does historian Harvard Sitkoff (1993) see as start of civil rights struggle?
Brown decision
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What does law professor Michael Klarman conclude about BROWN?
"relatively unimportant motivating factor for the civil rights movement", claiming main significance as being the black backlash
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What does David Garrow say about BROWN?
Sees it as the inspiratio for the Montgomery Bus Boycott. He sees the Boycott as the start of the civil rights movement.
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What is the opinion of Mark Newman regarding the Montgomery Bus Boycott?
"it did not spark a mass movement" and cites SCLC's early ineffectiveness as proof
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What have historians recently emphasised the significance of?
Federal government's anxieties about image during Cold War - Mary Dudziak talks of "Cold War imperative" which encouraged federal government to try to make blacks more equal while anti-communism made criticism of status quo difficult.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the significance of the Montgomery Bus Boycott?

Back

Seen by many as the start of the US Civil Rights movement

Card 3

Front

What happened in December 1955?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What was Rosa Parks arrested and charged with when she refused to move on the bus?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Why were Rosa Parks and three others told to move from their seats?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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