Civil rights topic 1- Reconstruction

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1865- Freedman’s Bureau created
Provided food, clothes to help freed slaves.
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1865- Civil War ends
Not to end Slavery
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1865- Lincoln Assassinated- Andrew Johnson becomes president
Lincoln had been freed slaves with the Emancipation Proclamation
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1865- 13th Amendment ratified
"Section 1- No slavery or involuntary servitude, except as punishment for crime Section 2- Congress has power to enforce it by appropriate legislation "
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1865- KKK established
Aimed to restore white supremacy
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1866- Race riots in southern cities
Social tensions caused by 13th Amendment and civil war. Violence in Memphis, Tennessee,and New Orleans. ‘we are all free, but don't mean we is white’
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1868- 14th Amendment
Granted citizenship to "all persons born or naturalised in the United States," which included former slaves recently freed.
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1869-1877- 16 Black congressmen & 2 black Senators
Radical Republicans believed blacks were entitled to the same political rights and opportunities as whites. They saw reconstruction as a way to punish southerners and reorganise the south
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1870- 15th Amendment ratified
Granted African American men the right to vote
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1871- Enforcement Acts passed against KKK
Congress authorises President Grant to declare martial law, impose heavy penalties against terrorist organisations, and use military force to suppress the Ku Klux Klan (KKK).
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1872- Freedman’s Bureau ends, Amnesty Act
F.B ends not because it was no longer needed, but because Northerners were beginning to lose interest in the South Amnesty Act: removed voting restrictions and office-holding disqualification against most of the secessionists who rebelled in the Ameri
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1873- Slaughterhouse cases in US Supreme Court
The first United States Supreme Court interpretation of the U.S. Constitution's Fourteenth Amendment which had recently been enacted. It was a pivotal case in early civil rights law.
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1873- White Leagues established
An American white paramilitary organisation started in 1874 to turn Republicans out of office and intimidate freedmen from voting and politically organising
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1875- Civil Rights Act passed, US vs Cruikshank decision
"Act aimed to prevent discrimination in public places, little effect in South, responsibility placed on black litigants (deemed unconstitutional by supreme court)- white win white militia attacked African-American Republican freedmen decision: white
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1876- Contested election between Hayes and Tilden
Republican nominee Rutherford B. Hayes defeated Democrat Samuel Tilden.
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1877- Reconstruction ends
"-Grant wanted reconciliation with south (Amnesty act 1872) -Northerners had lost interest in the Southern black problem -Radical reconstruction alienated most white republicans in south -Economic depression from 1873 "
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Reconstruction Social Evidence
"1865- Freedman’s Bureau created, KKK established 1866- Race riots in southern cities 1871- Enforcement Acts passed against KKK 1872- Freedman’s Bureau ends 1875- Civil Rights Act passed 1877- Reconstruction ends "
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Reconstruction Political Evidence
"1865- Civil War ends 1865- 13th Amendement ratified 1868- 14th Amendment 1869-1877- 16 Black congressmen & 2 black Senators 1870- 15th Amendment ratified "
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Reconstruction Economic Evidence
"1865- Freedman’s Bureau created 1865- 13th Amendment ratified, sharecropping 1877- Reconstruction ends (economic depression from 1873 being a key reason)"
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Successes
"1865- Freedman’s Bureau created 1865- 13th Amendement ratified 1868- 14th Amendment 1870- 15th Amendment ratified 1875- Civil Rights Act passed 1869-1877- 16 Black congressmen & 2 black Senators"
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Failures
"1865- 13th Amendment leads to share-cropping 1870- 15th Amendment (black men right to vote) literacy tests were introduced 1872- Freedman’s Bureau ends 1872- Amnesty Act 1866- Race riots in southern cities"
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Motivating factor: Civil War
Many black soldiers had fought against confederacy, Northern whites could not countenance their return to slavery.
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Motivating factor: Slavery was a moral issue for some Americans
President Lincoln believed that it was an issue shown in the Emancipation Proclamation
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Motivating factor: Lincolns assassination
13th amendment ratified in 1865 in President Lincoln’s legacy by congress
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Motivating factor: Radical Republicans
Radical republicans were dissatisfied with ‘Reconstruction confederate style’ and believed freed slaves should have some rights. Radical reconstruction 1867-77 aimed to do this.
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Obstacle: 1865- Lincolns assassination
President Johnson’s Reconstruction confederate style- allowed the Southern white elite to re establish their power.
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Obstacle: Black codes
supported economic, social and political inequality. Made it impossible for black Americans to purchase or rent land, to obtain an education, to vote, or to receive any meaningful protection from the law (juries were all white)
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Obstacle: 1872- Amnesty Act
removed voting restrictions and office-holding disqualification against most of the secessionists who rebelled in the American Civil War
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Obstacle: Southern attitudes
Rejection of the 14th amendment, secret organisations such as the KKK and White leagues established to terrorise black people
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Card 2

Front

1865- Civil War ends

Back

Not to end Slavery

Card 3

Front

1865- Lincoln Assassinated- Andrew Johnson becomes president

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

1865- 13th Amendment ratified

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

1865- KKK established

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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