Citizenship Full Course

The termination of a pregnancy at an early stage, usually through surgical operation
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Act (of Parliament)
A bill that has been approved by Parliament becomes a statute law
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Asylum Seeker
A person seeking political asylum (safety) in another country
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BBC (British broadcasting corporation)
The UK's publicly owned broadcasting company that is regulated by a Royal Charter. This sets out its responsibilities to be impartial and also to inform, educate and entertain the public
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The name given to a proposed new law as it passes through Parliament
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A type of website normally maintained by one person with regular entries of commentaries, descriptions to other materials such as graphics or video.
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The Prime Minister and the senior MP's he or she has chosen to help run the country and control government policy. Usually around 20 people.
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A person who asks people to vote for him/her as their representative.
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Carbon Emissions
The amount of carbon dioxide produced by human activities
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Civil Servant
A profession administrator employed by the state to carry out tests given to them by the government. (Should not support a particular party). They put new laws into operation and carry out government policies.
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Classical Democracy
A form of democracy in which citizens vote frequently and directly on issues of the day
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Community Cohesion
People sharing a sense of community identity and belonging
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Conquering and taking over the control of a region or country
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A sum of money paid in return for any loss or damage someone has suffered
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An area of the country with around 60,000 voters. Each of the 646 constituencies in the UK elects one MP to Parliament
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Council of Europe
An organisation of over 40 European states founded in 1949 which protects human rights through international agreement. (It should not be confused with European council which is a policy making body of the EU)
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The state or government. In the UK, the king or queen is the head of the state or government.
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Crown Court
The court used by the state or government for trials or serious criminal offences
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Crown Prosecution Service (CPS)
The CPS considers the information provided by the police about the activities of alleged criminals. The CPS decides whether there is enough evidence to take the matter to court and whether to so so would be in the public interest.
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Money awarded by a court to compensate someone for the loss or injury they have suffered.
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A system of government in which decisions are taken either by the population directly or through representatives they have elected.
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Economic Development
Building up a country's ability to produce things that other people want to buy
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Economic Downturn
When the amount of wealth a country creates is reduced because of world economic changes
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European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR)
A court that decides on cases in which it is claimed there has been a breach of the European Convention on Human Rights
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The process of helping someone to die in a dignified way before they would normally do so
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Finished Products
Items that we can eat or use, made from raw materials. For example cocoa pods can be made into chocolate and bauxite and can be into aluminium window frames
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Formal Action
An action that is part of a legal process and is carefully recorded. EG.a student excluded from a school is a formal action. There are strict guidelines that head teachers need to follow. Parents have the right to ask governors to review the decision
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Free Press
Newspapers, TV, radio and other media that are not controlled by the government. The free press can publish anything as long as it is not damaging to individuals and does not encourage people to break the law.
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General Election
An election to choose the MP's who will form a new parliament. A general election is held at least one every 5 years.
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High Court
The court that deals with the most important and high value cases in England and Wales.
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Home-School agreement
A written agreement that sets out the rights and responsibilities of teachers, students and parents in a school or college.
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House of Commons
The 646 democratically elected MPs form the House of Commons
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House of Lords
Members of the House of Lords (peers) either inherit their position or are chosen for their wisdom by the leaders of the main political parties. Peers debate new laws and offer their advice on possible changes.
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A person who has left their home region or country and is living in another region or country.
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Informal Action
This type of action is not placed on any record and usually will not involve any legal process. School governors, police or lawyers are not likely to be involved. EG a break time detention to parent complaining to a teacher is an informal action
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International Court of Justice (ICJ)
Also known as the World Court, the ICJ was set up by the UN to settle legal disputes between countries so as to avoid conflict between them
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International Humanitarian Law
A set of rules that aims to protect people's rights in wartime. It protects people who are no longer fighting. It also places limits on the weapons and tactics that can be used in war.
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A legally trained and experienced lawyer who keeps order during a trial, advises the jury and decides sentences.
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A group of ordinary people aged 18 and over. In a crown court they jury decides whether an accused person is guilty or not guilty.
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Legal Rights
Expectations that what the law says must be met. EG. we expect to be educated in a safe classroom. This is a legal right. If we are injured because the classroom in unsafe, we have a legal right to compensation.
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A piece of writing or broadcasting that is untrue and could damage someones reputation
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Licence Fee
The BBC is paid for through a fee paid by each household for any electronic device used for TV programmes. BBC can run a range of public services for us without adverts and independent from the influence of advertisers, shareholders and politicians
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Magistrates Court
Court which all criminal cases pass. Serious cases are sent to the crown court for trial. Some minor criminal matters are tried in this court, which also grants licenses for the sale of alcohol and other potentially controversial local matters
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A document produced by a political party before an election, which sets out for voters what the party promises to do if they get into power
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Maternity Leave
Paid leave from work for female workers who are expecting a baby. In 2009, 39 weeks of leave was granted for each pregnancy
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Newspapers, TV, the internet and any other means of communicating ideas or information
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Moral Responsibilities
What we should so to support others so they can enjoy certain rights. EG. students should behave so that they do not interfere with others right to learn.
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Moral Rights
What we expect from others in certain contexts. EG. parents expect to be contacted by teachers if their child misbehaves. This is not a legal right but as parents you expect it in a school context.
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National Minimum Wage
As long as they are aged 16 or over, workers have the right to receive pay per hour at a rate set by the government or higher. In 2009, it was £3.53 and hour.
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An ombudsman checks to see whether people have been treated unfairly by looking into complaints about services they have used such as the NHS
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The main law making body of the UK, consisting of the House of Commons, the House of Lords and the Crown.
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Paternity Leave
Paid leave from work for the partner of a women who gives birth. In 2009 worker had a right to two weeks leave
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Peacekeeping Mission
An attempt by a country or group of countries such as the UN to send armed forces to another country to prevent fighting and settle a dispute
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Political Party
A group of people with similar views who form an organisation to get member elected to government (local or national)
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A statement about what a political party will do on an issue such as education, health care to taxation when it gets into power.
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Making decisions that affect others
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Press Release
Businesses, celebrities, politicians, pressure groups and charities write their own accounts of events or set out their opinions on an issue. They send this to newspapers, broadcasters and websites for publication.
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Pressure Group
A group of people with similar views on a single issue who lobby elected representatives.
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Prime Minister
Is the leader of one of the political parties in parliament - usually the party with the most MPs. He or she is asked by the Crown to select the government to run the country
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Raw Materials
Things such as cocoa pods, wheat, iron ore and bauxite that are grown or mined and can be turned into things that we can use or eat.
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A vote on a single issue in which all citizens can take part
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Register of Electors
A list of those people who can vote in an election
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Representative Democracy
A form of democracy in which citizens choose representatives who vote on issues and do their best to represent the other citizens
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Useful naturally occurring substances such as fuels and materials
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Buying and selling. A retail business is a shop or other outlet for selling goods.
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Penalties that are imposed on a country by other countries in order to encourage that country to change its policies. EG. Commonwealth countries cut trade with Zimbabwe to encourage its government to extend human rights
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School Governor
Have the responsibility for choosing a head teacher, deciding school policies and make sure of high standards. Parents, teachers, students and others such as local business people can become school governors.
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UK border agency
The public body responsible for dealing with asylum and immigration
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United Nations (UN)
An international organisation to which most countries of the world belong. It aims to promote peace, prevent war and maintain world security
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UN Charter
A charter is a document that sets out the purpose of an organisation and the rights it expects members to promote. The UN charter on Human rights sets out the human rights that member countries are expected to follow
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UN General Assembly
A meeting if all the member countries of the UN. It decides the policies and budget of the UN as well as appointing the non permanent members of the security council
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UN security council
The UN body that carries out the policy of general assembly by maintaining international peace and security. The security council can start peacekeeping operations, impose sanctions and organise military action.
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Beliefs or Principles that we hold to be important
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Young Offender Institution
Secure accommodation where young offenders aged between 15 and 21 are held custody
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Youth Court
A court where young people under 18 are tried for criminal offences. Trials are conducted less formally than in an adult court and may not be reported in the media.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


A bill that has been approved by Parliament becomes a statute law


Act (of Parliament)

Card 3


A person seeking political asylum (safety) in another country


Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4


The UK's publicly owned broadcasting company that is regulated by a Royal Charter. This sets out its responsibilities to be impartial and also to inform, educate and entertain the public


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


The name given to a proposed new law as it passes through Parliament


Preview of the back of card 5
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